GNU Privacy Guard

GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG o GPG) è un software libero progettato per sostituire la suite crittografica PGP. È completamente compatibile con gli standard OpenPGP dell’IETF ed è sostenuto dal governo tedesco.

GNU Privacy Guard è distribuito sotto la licenza GNU General Public License e fa parte del Progetto GNU.

GNU Privacy Guard venne sviluppato inizialmente da Werner Koch e la versione 1.0.0 fu pubblicata il 7 settembre 1999.

Nel 2000 il Ministro federale dell’Economia e della Tecnologia della Germania fece partire il progetto di creazione della documentazione e di porting per Microsoft Windows.

Attualmente, il software viene manutenuto in tre versioni principali:

Le due versioni “modern” e “stable” non possono convivere tra loro, mentre, possono convivere con la versione “classic”.

GNU Privacy Guard è un software stabile e maturo ed è disponibile per una grande varietà di sistemi operativi, dalle distribuzioni GNU/Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD e NetBSD ai sistemi operativi proprietari Microsoft Windows e OS X. Esistono anche implementazioni per Android come OpenKeyChan, distribuito su F-Droid.

Nonostante la versione di base di GPG fornisca un’interfaccia a riga di comando completa, sono state sviluppate parecchie interfacce grafiche: Seahorse per GNOME; KGPG per KDE; metodi per integrarlo all’interno di programmi di posta elettronica come KMail, Evolution (i client e-mail di default per, rispettivamente, KDE e GNOME). Un plug-in apposito, Enigmail, permette l’integrazione con Thunderbird, semplificando l’utilizzo di GPG (per la posta) sotto Microsoft Windows, GNU/Linux ed altri sistemi operativi. Parecchi client e-mail testuali, tra cui Mutt, supportano la gestione delle mail firmate o cifrate con GPG (o PGP, la configurazione è abbastanza simile per entrambi). Sotto Android vi sono diversi client email che lo supportano, come K-9 Mail.

Si deve sempre tenere in mente che, poiché quei sistemi di plugin non fanno parte del progetto GPG né dello standard OpenPGP e che gli sviluppatori di GPG e di OpenPGP non hanno preso parte alla progettazione di tali sistemi, potrebbe accadere che la sicurezza fornita da GPG venga abbassata o addirittura compromessa dall’utilizzo di tali interfacce.

GPG può essere compilato sotto altre piattaforme come OS X e Windows. Per Windows un software che può esser considerato l’erede del commerciale PGP, è Gpg4win (oppure Gpg4usb), mentre per OS X esiste un port chiamato MacGPG. In particolare questo software è stato adattato per usare l’interfaccia utente di OS X e le sue funzioni native fabric ball remover. La cross-compilazione non è un lavoro semplice, anche solo per il fatto che i sistemi operativi provvedono ai requisiti di sicurezza in modalità molto diverse (anche da una versione all’altra) ed è spesso complesso adattare a queste modalità il programma per mantenere identici livelli qualitativi sui vari sistemi.

GPG cifra i messaggi utilizzando una coppia di chiavi (pubblica e privata) generate dall’utente. Le chiavi pubbliche possono essere scambiate tra gli utenti in vari modi, principalmente email e keyserver. Tuttavia bisogna prestare particolare attenzione alla corrispondenza tra chiave e (presunta) identità: il problema di tutti i sistemi di crittografia asimmetrica è la certificazione dell’autenticità della chiave, solitamente risolto con la presenza di un’autorità centrale oppure con la firma delle chiavi (un utente firma la chiave pubblica di un altro utente per certificarne l’effettiva autenticità) boys football shirts. Su questo delicato punto si basa anche la firma digitale di file (messaggi) per garantire l’autenticità del contenuto e del mittente.

GPG non fa utilizzo di algoritmi brevettati (o con ambiti di utilizzo ristretti da particolari licenze) come IDEA, presente in PGP sin dalle prime versioni. Vengono invece usati algoritmi come Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), RSA, ElGamal, CAST5, Triple DES (3DES), AES e Blowfish. È tuttavia ancora possibile utilizzare IDEA ma si deve scaricare un apposito plugin (e, in alcuni paesi, registrare una licenza di utilizzo).

Come prevede lo standard OpenPGP phone holder running, GPG è un sistema di crittografia “ibrido”, che combina algoritmi a chiave simmetrica a causa della loro velocità e algoritmi a chiave pubblica per la facilità di scambio delle chiavi: ogni volta che si deve cifrare un messaggio viene generata una chiave di sessione (utilizzata un’unica volta, per l’algoritmo simmetrico) che viene a sua volta cifrata con la chiave pubblica del destinatario. Si noti come questo passaggio renda impossibile la lettura del messaggio anche al mittente (a meno che questo non cifri la chiave di sessione anche con la propria chiave pubblica, opzione che è possibile abilitare).

Gli standard OpenPGP prevedono alcuni metodi di firma digitale; durante alcune modifiche a GPG volte a rendere più efficiente uno di questi metodi, venne introdotta per errore una vulnerabilità. Questo problema affligge soltanto uno dei metodi di firma digitale, solo in alcune release di GPG, e nei vari keyserver esistono meno di 1000 chiavi che lo presentano. Inoltre la maggior parte delle persone non usa questo metodo, l’utilizzo è scoraggiato, e, in ogni caso, il supporto venne immediatamente rimosso subito dopo la scoperta del problema, quindi i danni (se ce ne sono, non sono mai stati riportati pubblicamente) sembrano essere minimi waterproof cover for smartphone. Questo episodio è l’ennesima dimostrazione della difficoltà della corretta implementazione degli algoritmi e dei protocolli in un sistema crittografico.

Altri progetti

Manuel Agujetas

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Manuel de los Santos Pastor dit Agujetas ou Agujetas de Jerez, né le 17 mai 1939 à Rota près de Cadix (d’autres sources indiquent comme lieu de naissance: Las Tablas (Jerez de la Frontera) (es) goalkeeper gloves in india, près de Jerez de la Frontera, mais il n’avait pas de certificat de naissance) et mort le à Jerez de la Frontera, est un chanteur de flamenco (cantaor en espagnol) gitan espagnol.

Agujetas commence à travailler dans la forge de son père avant de partir pour Madrid. il participe à l’enregistrement de la Magna Antología del Cante, une anthologie du flamenco compilée par le musicologue José Blas Vega. Son père Agujeta el Viejo, lui a transmis la tradition du cante de Jerez hérité de Manuel Torre waterproof cover for smartphone. Ses enfants Dolores Agujetas et Antonio Agujetas sont aussi chanteurs de flamenco, ainsi que ses frères Dorgo, Paco safe water bottles, Diego et Luis.

Héritier d’une tradition orale best running hydration system, il déclare, dans le documentaire de Dominique Abel qui lui est consacré, Agujetas, cantaor, qu’il ne sait ni lire ni écrire et qu’un cantaor qui saurait lire ne vaudrait rien. Il ajoute qu’il connaît toutes ses letras par cœur. Il apparaît aussi dans le film de Carlos Saura, Flamenco.

Johanne Deschamps

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Johanne Deschamps (née le 2 avril 1959) est une femme politique québécoise custom football uniform designer. Elle a été députée à la Chambre des communes du Canada de 2004 à 2011, représentant de la circonscription québécoise de Laurentides—Labelle sous la bannière du Bloc québécois.

Elle était la compagne de Michel Guimond, député bloquiste de Montmorency—Charlevoix—Haute-Côte-Nord de 1993 à 2011.

Son premier mandat est celui de conseillère municipale de Val-Barrette waterproof cover for smartphone, de 1994 à 2004. En 1998, elle devient également commissaire de la Commission scolaire Pierre-Neveu, poste qu’elle occupe jusqu’en 2004.

Elle avait tente le saut en politique fédérale en 2000. Candidate du Bloc québécois dans Pontiac—Gatineau—Labelle, elle est défaite par 45 football tees for sale.39 % des voix contre 32,08 % par Robert Bertrand, député libéral sortant.

Elle tente de nouveau sa chance en 2004, dans la circonscription rebaptisée Laurentides—Labelle et réussit à s’y faire élire. Réélue en 2006 et en 2008, elle fut défait par le néo-démocrate Marc-André Morin en 2011.

Chuvashia

The Chuvash Republic (Russian: Чува́шская Респу́блика — Чува́шия, Chuvashskaya Respublika — Chuvashiya; Chuvash: Чăваш Республики, Čăvaš Respubliki), or Chuvashia (Russian: Чува́шия Chuvashiya; Chuvash: Чăваш Ен, Čăvaš Jen) for short, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). It is the homeland of the Chuvash people, a Turkic ethnic group. Its capital is the city of Cheboksary. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,251,619.

The Chuvash Republic is located in the center of European Russia, in the heart of the Volga-Vyatka economic region, mostly to the west of the Volga River, in the Volga Upland. It borders with the Mari El Republic in the north, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in the west, the Republic of Mordovia in the southwest, Ulyanovsk Oblast in the south, and the Republic of Tatarstan in the east and southeast. There are over two thousand rivers in the republic—with the major ones being the Volga, the Sura, and the Tsivil—as well as four hundred lakes. Some of the Volga River valley reservoirs are in the north of the republic, and the Sura River flows towards the Volga along much of the republic’s western boundary. Climate is moderate continental, with the average temperatures ranging from −13 °C (9 °F) in January to +19 °C (66 °F) in July. Annual precipitation varies between 450 and 700 millimeters (18 and 28 in), but is uneven from one year to another. Natural resources include gypsum, sand, clay, sapropel deposits, phosphorite, and peat. There are oil and natural gas deposits, although their extraction has not yet been commercially pursued. Forests, mostly in the south along the Sura River, cover approximately 30% of the land.

The ancestors of the Chuvash were Bulgars and Suars-which were Turkic tribes-residing in the Northern Caucasus in the 5th to 8th centuries. In the 7th and 8th centuries, a part of the Bulgars left for the Balkans, where, together with local Slavs, they established the state of modern Bulgaria. Another part moved to the Middle Volga Region (see Volga Bulgaria), where the Bulgar population that did not adopt Islam formed the foundation of the Chuvash people.

During the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, the steppe-dwelling Suar migrated north, where Finnic tribes, such as the Mordvins and Mari lived. The Chuvash claim to be the descendants of these Suars who assimilated with the Mari. In 1242, they became vassals of the Golden Horde. Later Mongol and Tatar rulers did not intervene in local internal affairs as long as tribute was paid annually to Sarai. When the power of the Golden Horde began to diminish, local Mişär Tatar Murzas from Piana and Temnikov tried to govern the Chuvash area.

During Ivan the Terrible’s war of conquest against the Khanate of Kazan, in August 1552, the Chuvash Orsai and Mari Akpar Tokari princes swore their loyalty to the Grand Duchy of Muscovy at Alatyr on the Sura River. Between 1650 and 1850, the Russian Orthodox Church sent Chuvash-speaking missionaries to try to convert the Chuvash to the Orthodox faith. A group of these missionaries created a written Chuvash language. Most of the Chuvash who stayed in the area became Orthodox Christians, but some remained pagan.

On May 15, 1917, the Chuvash joined the Idel-Ural Movement and in December 1917 joined the short-lived Idel-Ural State, when an agreement was reached with Tatar representatives to draw the eastern border of Chuvashia at the Sviyaga River. In 1918–1919, the Russian Civil War encompassed the area. This ended with victory for the Bolsheviks. To gain support from the local population, Lenin ordered the creation of a Chuvash state within the Russian SFSR. On June 24, 1920, the Chuvash Autonomous Oblast was formed, which was transformed into the Chuvash ASSR in April 1925.

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the republic was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Chuvashia CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the Republic Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Republic administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Republic of Chuvashia is the fundamental law of the region. The State Council of the Chuvash Republic is the republic’s regional standing legislative (representative) body. The highest executive body is the Republic’s Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters.

The republic is not large, but is one of the most densely populated regions in Russia. Population: 1,251,619 (2010 Census); 1,313,754 (2002 Census); 1,336,066 (1989 Census).

The largest city is the capital, Cheboksary (population 464,000 in 2010). Cheboksary is situated mostly on the southern bank of the Volga in the northern part of the republic (one northern bank district was added in the second part of the 20th century), approximately 650 kilometers (400 mi) east of Moscow. Nearby to the east is the next largest city, Novocheboksarsk (population 124,000 in 2010).

Note: TFR

According to the 2010 Census, ethnic Chuvash make up 67.7% of the republic’s population. Other groups include Russians (26.9%), Tatars (2.8%), Mordvins (1.1%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

Osteopetrosis affects 1 newborn out of every 20,000 to 250,000 worldwide, but the odds are much higher in the Russian region of Chuvashia (1 of every 3 waterproof pouch for phone,500–4,000 newborns) due to genetic traits of the Chuvash people.

Religion in Chuvashia (2012)

According to a 2012 official survey 54.7% of the population of Chuvashia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 3% of the population (mostly Tatars) follow Islam, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% follow indigenous faiths (Vattisen Yaly, Chuvash folk religion). In addition, 24% of the population declares to be “spiritual but not religious”, 8% is atheist and 2.3% follows other religions or did not answer to the question.

Study of religion is compulsory for schoolchildren in Chuvashia. Of the students, approximately 36.9% are enrolled for Secular Studies, 36.0% for Orthodox Studies, 25.7% for World Religions Studies and 1.4% for Islamic Studies.

The Chuvash Republic is the most populous and fertile country in the middle Volga region. There are deciduous woodlands on fertile black earth. In agriculture, wheat and sugar-beet, pigs and beef cattle have become more important than the rye, oats, barley and dairy cattle which are typical for the whole area.

The republic is Russia’s center for hops growing and is famous throughout the country for its long history of beer brewing. It is also a major center for electrical engineering, especially in the area of power transmission and control systems. Other leading industries are metalworking, electricity generation, and chemical manufacturing. There are also large timber-working mills at Shumerlin.

The transport network in the republic is one of the most developed in Russia. The republic’s system of roads, railroads, waterways, and airports closely ties the region with others in and outside of Russia waterproof cover for smartphone.

Only four roads in the Chuvash Republic are classified as important federal highways. The most important is Highway M-7, which runs from Nizhny Novgorod through the northern parts of the republic from Yadrinsky Nikolskoye via Malye Tyumerli, Kalmykovo, Khyrkasy, Novye Lapsary, Kugesi, Shivlinsk, Staraya Tyurlema, to Kazan in the Republic of Tatarstan. It also forms a connection via Chuvashia through the southern suburbs of Cheboksary and Novocheboksary to the Mari El Republic and the Vyatka Highway. Part of this road is classified as a motorway, the only one in the republic. From Yadrinsky Nikolskoye, the federal road P-178 runs through Yadrin, Shumerlya, Alatyr, to Surskoye in Ulyanovsk Oblast and further to Ulyanovsk. In the eastern part of Chuvashia, the federal road A-151 runs from Tsivilsk through Kanash, Komsomolskoye, Chkalovskoye, Karabay-Shemursha, Shemursha to Ulyanovsk and Saratov. All other roads in Chuvashia are classified as local area roads.

Automobiles, trucks, and buses are the major forms of transportation, with the republic ranking fourth in highway density in all of Russia. Cheboksary is situated on one of the main highways of the Russian Federation leading from Moscow to the industrial areas of Tatarstan, the southern Urals, and Siberia. A recently completed bridge across the Volga River in the north connects the republic to the developed Ural and Volga Federal Districts. To the south, highways connect Chuvashia with Saratov and Volgograd. Extensive public and private bus systems connect all towns within the republic with each other and with the surrounding regions.

The standard speed of transportation of containers by road is 400 kilometers (250 mi) per day. The average time of delivery from Cheboksary to Moscow is 1.5 days; to Saint Petersburg, 2.5 days; and to Western Europe, 10 to 15 days.

The railway network is highly developed, convenient, and accessible year-round. One of the largest railway junctions of Russia – Kanash — is in the center of the republic. Via Kanash, the rail system connects the major towns in Chuvashia with the big industrial centers of eastern Siberia, the Urals, and Moscow. Express trains are reliable and provide a low-cost, comfortable way to travel. Express trains to and from Moscow are available every day, with the overnight journey taking approximately fourteen hours each way.

The following lines serve railway traffic in the Chuvash Republic:

In addition to these lines, there are 26 kilometers (16 mi) of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) gauge industrial lines running from Altyshevo station, on Alatyr-Kanash section, to Pervomaysky, located just west of Starye Aybesi in Alatyrsky District.

All railway lines in Chuvashia are operated by the MPS Gorky Railway Division. Steam locomotives were mostly replaced in 1970 by diesel locomotives and when the main Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk line was electrified, the diesel locomotives were replaced by electric ones.

The Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk line is a double track main line, while the others are single track lines. The 84 km (52 mi) Sviyazhsk-Kanash section was electrified in 1986, the 142 km (88 mi) Kanash-Sergach section in 1987.

In 1967, there were four daily passenger trains in both directions on the Alatyr-Kanash line. One of them was the semifast Sochi-Sverdlovsk-Sochi long distance transit train, halting only at Alatyr, Buinsk, and Kanash. Cheboksary was connected by daily semifast passenger train to Moscow. The travel time was 17.30[clarification needed] hours for the 758 km (471 mi) journey. 21 express and passenger trains used the Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk main line in the summer high season in both directions. Of these, four did not halt in Chuvashia. Most of the remaining semifast trains stopped at Shumerlya, Piner, Burnary, and Kanash. Four pairs of semifast trains also stopped at Tyurmari. In the 1999-2000 timetable, 11 pairs of Moscow-Kanash-Kazan express trains stopped at Kanash. The Chuvashia 53/54 express trains between Moscow and Kanash took 11.23 hours, back 10.57 hours.[clarification needed]

In addition to Russian 1,524 mm (5 ft) gauge railways, there were six 750 mm (2 ft 5 12 in) narrow gauge railway lines: two short peat briquette industry lines at Severny and Sosnovka on the north side of the Volga, and four forest railways at Shumerlya, Atrat and Kirya. All opened in the 1930s. In 1965, their total length was 145 kilometers (90 mi):

All lines were closed in the economic uncertainty after the breakup of the Soviet Union.

The Volga and Sura Rivers connect Chuvashia to a national and international water network. To the south, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea, and Black Sea are directly reachable. To the west, the Volga River connects Cheboksary with Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Moscow and the northern regions of Russia. By using river-sea vessels, cargo transportation is possible from Chuvash river ports all the way to Saint Petersburg, Novorossiysk (on the Black Sea)

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, Astrakhan, and ports situated on the Danube River. However, the river is frozen from December through April.

Boat tours to the major cities along the Volga are of tourist interest, and Cheboksary is a frequent stop on the many boat tours that travel up and down the Volga.

The international Cheboksary Airport receives both cargo and passenger aircraft of practically all types and sizes. There are regularly scheduled flights to Moscow and other destinations. Cheboksary is also about a four-hour drive from Nizhny Novgorod, a city with international air connections through Lufthansa meat tenderizer utensil.

While Russian is the predominant business language, the Chuvash language is still spoken by many, especially in the country. The Chuvash language belongs to the Oghur subgroup of the Turkic language group. In ancient times a runic system of writing was used. Chuvashi now uses a modified Cyrillic script that was adopted in 1871.

There has been a resurgence of native Chuvash pride, with many people looking back to their Chuvash roots and exploring the culture and heritage and relearning the language. Most building signs, road signs, and announcements are in both Russian and Chuvash.

At present Chuvash Republic has 6 professional theaters:

and over 30 amateur theaters, a Philharmonic Society, an Academic Folk Song and Dance Group, an Academic Choir, a Chamber Orchestra, and some professional concert groups.

There are also more than 20 museums, exhibition halls and modern art galleries.

Chuvash Republic has more than 565 public libraries, the book collection being over 10 million units.

Monuments of Architecture

There are about 627 monuments of architecture in Chuvashia, including 54 of national importance: the Vvedensky Cathedral (1657), the Holy Trinity Monastery (1566), the Salt House, the houses of Chuvash famous merchants (Zeleischikov, Solovtsov, the Efremov family) (18th-19th century) in Cheboksary, the Tolmachev family house and Trinity Cathedral (18th century) in the town of Tsivilsk, the Burashnikov house in the town of Yadrin.

Surhuri (Chuvash: Сурхури) is the Chuvash national holiday.

There are five higher educational institutions, including the Chuvash State University, the Chuvash State Pedagogical Institute, and the Chuvash State Agricultural Academy located in Cheboksary. These, together with 28 colleges and technical schools, are currently attended by approximately 45,000 students. Chuvashia, along with Mordovia, has given some of the best modern race walkers, as Vera Sokolova, Olimpiada Ivanova, Yelena Nikolayeva and Vladimir Andreyev. Additionally, the 2008 IAAF World Race Walking Cup was held in Cheboksary.