Bruno Fratus

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Bruno Giuseppe Fratus (né le 22 juin 1989 à Macaé, État de Rio de Janeiro) est un nageur brésilien, spécialiste du 50 m nage libre.

Il termine quatrième de la finale du 50 m lors des Jeux olympiques de Londres en 2012. Il remporte sur la même distance la médaille d’or des Championnats pan-pacifiques 2014 à Gold Coast.

Lors des championnats pan-pacifiques 2010 à Irvine, États-Unis, Fratus a fait sa première grande implication dans un tournoi international, terminant au 4e rang au 50 m nage libre, avec un temps de 21,93 secondes. Il a aussi terminé 25e au 100 mètres freestyle.

Dans les Championnats aquatiques du Monde 2011 tenue à Shanghai, en Chine, Fratus a fait le meilleur temps dans les demi-finales du 50 mètres nage libre: 21,76 secondes. Il a terminé 5e en finale, avec un temps de 21,96 secondes

Aux Jeux panaméricains de 2011 à Guadalajara, Fratus a remporté trois médailles: La médaille d’or dans les 4 x 100 mètres nage libre et quatre nages relais, et la médaille d’argent dans le 50 mètres nage libre.

En Avril 2012 flask water bottle, contestant la Lenk Trophy Maria à Rio de Janeiro, Fratus a obtenu la marque de 21,70 secondes au 50 mètres nage libre.

Aux Jeux Olympiques d’été de 2012 à Londres, Fratus a atteint la finale de la 50 mètres nage libre, gagnant la 4e place avec 21,61 secondes, à seulement 0,02 secondes derrière César Cielo, qui a remporté la médaille de bronze avec 21 lint defuzzer,59 secondes.

En mai 2013, Fratus a subi une chirurgie pour régler une blessure à l’épaule droite, qui avait duré deux ans.

Fratus a remporté une médaille d’or aux Jeux de 2014 d’Amérique du Sud. Au 50 m libre chez les hommes, il a battu le record de la compétition avec un temps de 22,12 dans les manches. Au Maria Lenk Trophy 2014, à São Paulo, il a remporté une médaille d’argent dans le 50 mètres nage libre avec un temps de 21.45, perdant seulement à Cielo, qui a remporté avec un temps de 21.39.

Lors des championnats de natation 2014 Pan Pacific à Gold Coast, Queensland, Australie, Fratus a remporté une médaille de bronze au 4 x 100 mètres nage libre brésilien, avec João de Lucca, Marcelo Chierighini et Nicolas Oliveira. Le lendemain, il a remporté la médaille d’or dans le 50 mètres nage libre, en battant les champions olympiques Anthony Ervin et Nathan Adrian, brisant le record des championnats, et en battant son record personnel avec un temps de 21.44.

En Décembre 2014, à l’Open du Brésil pink goalkeeper gloves, à Rio de Janeiro, il a nagé vie meilleure dans le 100 mètres nage libre, avec un temps de 48.57, et dans le 50 mètres nage libre, avec un temps de 21.41.

En Juillet 2015 Fratus a participé aux Jeux panaméricains, à Toronto goalkeeper gloves melbourne. Il a remporté la médaille d’or dans le 4 × 100 mètres nage libre, avec Matheus Santana, João de Lucca et Marcelo Chierighini. L’équipe a établi un nouveau record des Jeux panaméricains avec un temps de 3:13.66 Fratus a également remporté la médaille d’argent dans le style libre de 50 mètres

Lors des Championnats du monde aquatiques 2015 à Kazan, Fratus remporté sa première médaille aux Championnats du monde à 50 mètres libre masculin, où il a remporté la médaille de bronze, avec un temps de 21,55. Il a également terminé 4e en 4 × 100 le compteur les hommes nage libre, avec Marcelo Chierighini, Matheus Santana et João de Lucca. César Cielo n’a pas nagé la finale – en dépit d’être participant au championnat, il était ressentir de la douleur à l’épaule en ce jour; et 6e dans le 4 x 100 mètres nage libre mixte, avec Matheus Santana , Larissa Oliveira et Daynara de Paula, battant le record sud-américain avec un temps de 3:25.58

Crimes involving radioactive substances

This is a list of criminal (or arguably, allegedly, or potentially criminal) acts intentionally involving radioactive substances. Inclusion in this list does not necessarily imply that anyone involved was guilty of a crime. For accidents or crimes that involved radioactive substances unbeknownst to those involved, see the list of radiation accidents.

An unnamed man was convicted of attempting to poison his ex-wife in 2001 with plutonium stolen from WAK (Wiederaufbereitungsanlage Karlsruhe), a small scale reprocessing plant where he worked. He did not steal a large amount of plutonium, only rags used for wiping surfaces and a small amount of liquid waste. At least two people (besides the criminal) were contaminated by the plutonium. Two flats in Landau in the Rhineland-Palatinate were contaminated, and had to be cleaned at a cost of two million euro. Photographs of the case and details of other nuclear crimes have been presented by a worker at the Institute for Transuranium Elements.

Alexander Litvinenko died from polonium-210 poisoning in 2006. British officials said investigators had concluded the murder of Litvinenko was “a ‘state-sponsored’ assassination orchestrated by Russian security services.” On 20 January 2007 British police announced that they had “identified the man they believe poisoned Alexander Litvinenko,” Andrei Lugovoi.

On the 21st of September 2012 a story was posted in various UK newspapers suggesting the existence of an ongoing cover-up by the British Government over the material facts of the case.[citation needed] The report suggests that many aspects of the case may “never see the light of day” due to the significant risk to UK/Russian relations and the implications of the declaration that an act of nuclear terrorism took place on British soil.[citation needed]

Roman Tsepov, a politically influential Russian who provided security to Vladimir Putin and others, fell sick on September 11, 2004 after a trip to Moscow, and died on September 24. A postmortem investigation found a poisoning by an unspecified radioactive material. He had symptoms similar to Aleksandr Litvinenko.

An unnamed truck driver was killed by 5 months of radiation exposure to a 1.3 curies (48 GBq) cesium-137 source that had been put into the door of his truck around February 1995. He died of radiation-induced leukemia on 27 April 1997.

In 1993, director of the Kartontara packing company Vladimir Kaplun was killed by radioactive material (probably cesium-137) placed in his chair. He died of radiation sickness after a month of hospitalization. The source of the radiation was found after his death.

In November 5, 1974, Kerr-McGee worker and labor union activist Karen Silkwood found herself exposed to plutonium-239 after working to grind and polish plutonium pellets by way of a glovebox to be used in nuclear fuel rods at the Cimarron Fuel Fabrication Site in Oklahoma. Inspection of the gloves would yield no evidence of external leakage of radioactive contaminant from the glovebox, despite the fact that plutonium had been found on those surfaces of the gloves that had contact with Silkwood’s hands, and no other source for a plutonium leak could be ascertained despite thorough inspections of the air vents and surrounding surfaces. However, on Nov. 6th, despite Silkwood’s prior decontamination and self-inspection, a detection on her part the next day yielded more signs of alpha activity on her hands, while health physics staff at the plant subsequently detected further alpha activity on her right forearm, neck and face. On November 7, Silkwood tested positive for very significant levels of alpha activity, and an inspection of her apartment showed high levels of radioactive contamination. Thereafter, Silkwood and two other co-workers personally associated with her (roommate Sherri Ellis and boyfriend Drew Stephens) would be tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory; while the latter two only tested positive for insignificant amounts of plutonium exposure, Silkwood was found to have 6–7 nanocuries (220–260 Bq) of plutonium-239 in her lungs, though researcher Dr. George Voelz insisted that this amount was still negligible and non-harmful. Later posthumous measurements taken after Silkwood’s death under separate but likewise controversial circumstances were shown to be roughly consistent with the initial findings described by Dr. Voelz, but also indicated that she had somehow ingested plutonium prior to her demise. It would also be found that Karen Silkwood would not have had access to plutonium-239 for months after her transfer from metallography to rod assembly.

Allegations that Silkwood’s exposure to plutonium-239 was a deliberate act of radiation poisoning are fueled by the fact that she was in possession of potentially compromising evidence that linked Kerr-McGee with egregious safety violations, encompassing unsafe workplace conditions at the plant, faulty manufacture of fuel rod components that posed a potential public safety risk, and even substantial missing plutonium supplies that were unaccounted for; Silkwood also contended that she had evidence that photographs containing evidence of hairline cracks in the fuel rods may have been doctored by company personnel as a cover-up. As Silkwood was coordinating with fellow union members and had been en route to meet a journalist to present and discuss evidence she had found of Kerr-McGee’s actions at the time of her death, unverified assertions that Kerr-McGee or other associated parties may have been involved in her radiation exposure and later fatal car accident have circulated in the following period.

For accidental theft or attempted theft of radioactive materials, see the list of radiation accidents.

On 13 September 1999, six people attempted to steal radioactive cobalt-60 rods from a chemical plant in the city of Grozny in the Chechen Republic. During the theft, the suspects opened the radioactive material container and handled it, resulting in the deaths of three of the suspects and injury of the remaining three. The suspect who held the material directly in his hands died of radiation exposure 30 minutes later. This incident is described as an attempted theft, but some of the rods are reportedly still missing.

Some former East German dissidents claim that the Stasi used X-ray equipment to induce cancer in political prisoners.

Similarly, some anti-Castro activists claim that the Cuban secret police sometimes used radioactive isotopes to induce cancer in “adversaries they wished to destroy with as little notice as possible”. In 1997, the Cuban expatriate columnist Carlos Alberto Montaner called this method “the Bulgarian Treatment”, after its alleged use by the Bulgarian secret police.

In the early 20th century a series of products claiming medicinal properties, which contained radioactive elements were marketed to the general public. This does not include certain medications that contain radioactive isotopes (e.g. iodine-131 for its oncological uses) but pertains to elixirs and other medications that made preposterous claims (see below) that were neither scientific nor verifiable.

Radithor, a well known patent medicine/snake oil, is possibly the best known example of radioactive quackery. It consisted of triple distilled water[clarification needed] containing at a minimum 1 microcurie (37 kBq) each of the radium-226 and radium-228 isotopes how to use papain meat tenderizer.

Radithor was manufactured from 1918 – 1928 by the Bailey Radium Laboratories, Inc., of East Orange, New Jersey. The head of the laboratories was listed as Dr. William J. A goalkeeper gloves melbourne. Bailey, not a medical doctor stainless steel meat pounder. It was advertised as “A Cure for the Living Dead” as well as “Perpetual Sunshine”.

These radium elixirs were marketed similar to the way opiates were peddled to the masses with laudanum an age earlier, and electrical cure-alls during the same time period such as the Prostate Warmer.

The eventual death of the socialite Eben Byers from Radithor consumption and the associated radiation poisoning led to the strengthening of the Food and Drug Administration’s powers and the demise of most radiation based patent medication.

Names for soft drinks in the United States

Names for soft drinks in the United States vary regionally. “Soda” and “pop” are the most common terms for soft drinks nationally, although other terms are used, especially “coke” (a genericized name for Coca-Cola) in the South. Since individual names tend to dominate regionally, the use of a particular term can be an act of geographic identity. The choice of terminology is most closely associated with geographic origin, rather than other factors such as race, age, or income. The differences in naming have been the subject of scholarly studies. Cambridge linguist Bert Vaux, in particular, has studied the “pop vs. soda debate” in conjunction with other regional vocabularies of American English.

According to writer Andrew Schloss, “soda” derives from sodium, a common mineral in natural springs, and was first used to describe carbonation in 1802. The earliest known usage of “pop” is from 1812; in a letter to his wife, poet Robert Southey says the drink is “called pop because pop goes the cork when it is drawn, & pop you would go off too if you drank too much of it.” The two words were later combined into “soda pop” in 1863. Schloss gives the following years as the first attestations of the various terms for these beverages:

In the Southern United States, “coke” (or “cola”) is used as a generic term for any type of soft drink—not just a Coca-Cola product or another cola. This terminology is also used in areas adjacent to the traditional southern states, such as New Mexico and Southern Indiana. Several other locations have been found to use the generic “coke,” such as Trinity County goalkeeper gloves melbourne, California and White Pine County, Nevada, although the small populations of these counties may skew survey results wool socks. A Twitter data scientist, however conair cls1 fabric shaver, found that while “soda” and “pop” dominate in the United States, “coke” is a generic soft drink name in other countries best shaver review, especially in Europe.

“Pop” is most commonly associated with the Midwest, in states like Ohio, Michigan, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Iowa. The term is also more common in the Pacific Northwest and Mountain West.

“Soda” is most common on the East and West Coasts, as well as Hawaii, St. Louis, Missouri, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin.