Hrere

Hrere (sometimes spelled as Hrēre or Herere) was an ancient Egyptian noble lady of the late 20th-early 21st dynasties of Egypt. Although during her life she must have been an influential person, not much is known for certain about her family relationships. The names of her parents have not come down to us and the identity of her husband is not beyond dispute. She is often seen as either the wife or grandmother of the High Priest at Thebes, Piankh, but it has also been suggested that she may have been the wife of the High Priest Amenhotep.

As will be explained below buy glass water bottle, Hrere’s exact place in the family of Theban High Priests ultimately depends on two factors, neither of which has yet been resolved:

[1] the identity of her daughter Nodjmet

[2] the relative order of Herihor and Piankh

The only thing which can be established beyond doubt is that she was the mother of the lady Nodjmet whose mummy and funerary outfit have been found in the Great Royal Cache near Deir el Bahri. With the mummy of this Nodjmet two Books of the Dead, were found. One of them, Papyrus BM 10490, now in the British museum, belonged to “the King’s Mother Nodjmet best metal water bottle, the daughter of the King’s Mother Hrere”. Whereas the name of Nodjmet was written in a cartouche, the name of Hrere was not. Since mostly this Nodjmet is seen as the wife of the High Priest Herihor, who is also attested with royal titles childrens drinks bottle, Hrere’s title is often interpreted as “King’s Mother-in-law”, although her title “who bore the Strong Bull” suggests that she actually must have given birth to a king.

However, recently, the common opinion that there was only one Queen Nodjmet has been challenged and the old view that the mummy found in the Royal Cache was that of the mother of Herihor rather than his wife has been revived. Although it is beyond dispute that Herihor had a queen called Nodjmet (this was already recognised by Champollion), Édouard Naville postulated in 1878 that Herihor must have had a mother called Nodjmet. He did so on the basis of Papyrus BM 10541, the other Book of the Dead found with her mummy. It is indeed remarkable that, although Herihor figures in P. BM 10541, Nodjmet nowhere in either of her two Books of the Dead is designated as “King’s Wife”. All the stress is on her position as “King’s Mother”, as if this was her only title relevant in relation to Herihor. The ruling family from the transitional period from the 20th to the 21st dynasty is notorious for the repetitiveness of names, so Herihor having a homonymous wife and mother would in itself not be impossible or unlikely. If the Nodjmet from the Royal Cache was indeed the mother of Herihor, it follows that Hrere must have been the grandmother of Herihor rather than his mother(-in-law). In this position she could well have been the wife of the High Priest Amenhotep. However, the debate on this issue is still going on.

One of the “Late Ramesside Letters”, letter no.2, written by the Scribe of the Necropolis Dhutmose, mentions Hrere as being in Elephantine during a military expedition of Piankh. Since this seemed to imply that Piankh had his grandmother accompany him on the first part of a dangerous campaign, M. Bierbrier suggested that besides a Hrere A, the mother of Nodjmet, there may have been a Hrere B, the daughter of Nodjmet and the wife of Piankh. The need for a second Hrere more or less ceased to exist when Karl Jansen-Winkeln proposed to put the pontificate of Piankh before that of Herihor. In his model there was only one Hrere, who was both the wife of Piankh and the mother-in-law of Herihor. Her title “who bore the Strong Bull” now became related to her being the mother of the High Priest Pinuzem, who is believed to have taken on semi-royal status later in his career.

Przemysław oświęcimski

Przemysław (Przemysł) Oświęcimski (Młodszy) (ur. ok. 1365 – zm what does lemon squeeze mean. 1 stycznia 1406), książę cieszyński, od 1404 udzielny książę na połowie Ścinawy i Głogowa, od 1405 dodatkowo w Toszku i Oświęcimiu.

Przemysław był starszym synem księcia cieszyńskiego Przemysława I Noszaka i księżniczki bytomskiej Elżbiety. Jan Długosz w swojej kronice błędnie nazwał Przemysława młodszym potomkiem książęcej pary. O tym, że był najstarszym dzieckiem, świadczą przekonująco pozostałe źródła, w których osoba Przemysława występuje zawsze na pierwszym miejscu.

Przemysław początkowo występował tylko w dokumentach wydawanych przez ojca. Samodzielnym władcą został 23 czerwca 1404, kiedy to na mocy postanowienia króla czeskiego Wacława IV, młody książę otrzymał w lenno połowę księstwa głogowskiego, ze Ścinawą i Górą (część historyków dyplom ten odnosi do ojca księcia – Przemysława Noszaka).

W 1405 po bezpotomnej śmierci księcia oświęcimskiego Jana III, jego władztwo na mocy przywileju z 1372 roku hydration backpack for running, przejął Przemysław Noszak. Nowy nabytek jeszcze w tym samym roku otrzymał od ojca jego syn – imiennik, który odtąd przyjął tytuł księcia oświęcimskiego.

Dobrze zapowiadające się rządy Przemysława Oświęcimskiego zostały przerwane w dniu 1 stycznia 1406. Okoliczności zgonu młodego władcy znamy dokładnie z przekazu Jana Długosza, który jednak wydarzenia te opisuje pod błędną datą 1 stycznia 1400. O tym że, po tej dacie Przemysław jeszcze żył świadczą m.in. dokument z 1402 i fakt przejęcia Oświęcimia, który mógł mieć miejsce najwcześniej w 1405. Śmierć najstarszego syna Przemysława Noszaka dosięgła podczas podróży księcia z Gliwic do Cieszyna w okolicach Rybnika z rąk nieznanego bliżej Marcina Chrzana. Morderstwo to zostało dokonane najprawdopodobniej na zlecenie księcia raciborskiego Jana II Żelaznego, który nie chciał dopuścić do utwierdzenia się władzy książąt cieszyńskich nad Oświęcimiem best water bottles for running. Wydawało się, że wybuchnie wojna między książętami cieszyńskimi a Janem II Żelaznym; ostatecznie spór zażegnano w 1407 roku, podpisując traktat pokojowy w Żorach buy glass water bottle.

Przemysław został pochowany w kościele farnym w Cieszynie. Z małżeństwa z nieznaną osobą pozostał po nim jedyny syn Kazimierz.

Zachował się barwny opis kary, jaka spotkała schwytanego mordercę Przemysława – Marcina Chrzana pióra naszego dziejopisa Jana Długosza, którą warto tutaj przytoczyć: “(morderca został) na spiżowym koniu (posadzony), który miał w środku rozżarzone węgle, wożono go po wszystkim ulicach i zaułkach i naokoło miasta Cieszyna, a trzech oprawców rozżarzonymi kleszczami szarpało jego ciało na kawałki, a w końcu wyrwało jego wnętrzości”.

Zwrotnica elektryczna

Zwrotnica elektryczna (Splitter, spliter (ang. split, podzielić) – filtr elektroniczny wykorzystywany do rozdzielania sygnałów. Jeżeli w jednym przewodzie przesyłane są dwa rodzaje fal o różnym zakresie częstotliwości, to splitter pozwala na rozdzielenie ich od siebie battery operated lint shaver. Zwykle ma on jedno wejście i dwa wyjścia, ponieważ rozdziela sygnał na dwa sygnały o różnych częstotliwościach nośnych. Wewnątrz splitter zawiera dwa filtry środkowoprzepustowe, a ich charakterystyki są tak dobrane, że na każde z wyjść trafia tylko odpowiedni sygnał.

W sferze telekomunikacji przewodowej splittery wykorzystuje się najczęściej w technologii ADSL do rozdzielania sygnału telefonicznego od pasma przeznaczonego do transmisji danych, zwykle wykorzystywanego w dostępie do Internetu buy glass water bottle.

Splitterem nazywany jest też typowy rozgałęźnik sygnału np. zwrotnica antenowa sygnału radiowo-telewizyjnego przenosząca pasmo od ok. 40 do ok. 890 MHz.

Splitter w kontekście telewizji cyfrowej (DVB) to urządzenie pozwalające korzystać z jednej czipowej karty abonenckiej (smart card) w kilku dekoderach. Urządzenia takie pracują w architekturze klient-serwer. W serwerze systemu umieszcza się kartę platformy cyfrowej, której usługi mają być udostępniane dekoderom. Klient systemu splittera ma zwykle kształt, który umożliwia umieszczenie go w szczelinie dekodera zamiast karty abonenckiej lub kształt osobnego modułu – tak zwanego serwera. Urządzenie takie nie pracuje bezpośrednio na sygnale wideo, a jedynie przesyła informacje niezbędne do jego zdekodowania, co ma miejsce w samym dekoderze (z pomocą algorytmu CSA). Transmisja danych pomiędzy elementami systemu odbywa się drogą przewodową (zwykle jest to czterożyłowy płaski kabel telefoniczny) lub bezprzewodową (najczęściej w otwartym paśmie częstotliwości ISM). To, czy kartę wybranego operatora można rozdzielić, zależy w głównej mierze od stosowanego przez nią systemu dostępu warunkowego). Pośród polskich platform cyfrowych dzielone są najczęściej: CYFRA+ (system Mediaguard) i „n na kartę” (system Conax).

Przykładowo splitter pracujący w formie filtra DirectShow pozwalający otwierać, przy pomocy popularnych odtwarzaczy multimedialnych, nietypowe kontenery z materiałami wideo. Popularnym filtrem tego typu jest Haali-Media-Matroska-Splitter.

Strange Brother

Strange Brother is a gay novel written by Blair Niles published in 1931. The story is about a platonic relationship between a heterosexual woman and a gay man and takes place in New York City in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

Strange Brother provides an early and objective documentation of homosexual issues during the Harlem Renaissance.

Mark Thornton, the story’s protagonist, moves to New York City in hopes of feeling like less of an outsider. At a nightclub in Harlem he meets and befriends June Westbrook. One night they witness a man named Nelly being arrested. June encourages Mark to investigate. This leads Mark to attend Nelly’s trial, where he is found guilty and sentenced to six months’ imprisonment on Welfare Island for his feminine affections and gestures. Next Mark researches the crimes against nature sections of the penal code. Shaken up by his findings and the events, Mark confesses his own homosexuality to June.

Mark and June’s friendship continues to grow, and June introduces Mark to a number of friends in her social circle. Various social interactions ensue including a dinner party for a departing professor, a trip to a nightspot featuring a singer called Glory who sings Creole Love Call and attending a drag ball. Despite reading Walt Whitman’s poetry collection Leaves of Grass, Edward Carpenter’s series of papers Love’s Coming of Age, and Countee Cullen’s poetry, Mark is afraid to come out. Subsequently, Mark is threatened with being outed at work. In response to this threat, Mark commits suicide by shooting himself.

Tom Burden: An older gay man and platonic friend who urges Mark to develop his drawing talents. Tom leads Mark to realize his homosexuality before he himself travels abroad.

Philip Crane (Phil): A handsome, muscular and heterosexual man who studies tropical entomology. Phil is Jane’s cousin and companion on whom Mark has a secret crush.

Palmer Fleming: June’s ex-husband whom she witnesses dancing with a scantily clad young man at a Drag Ball.

Harold Grant (Nelly) : A 21-year-old, outwardly effeminate African American man and drag queen whose arrest concerns June and Mark.

Irwin Hesse: A professor who is a Jewish man from continental Europe. Dr. Hesse experiments with sex differences in animals, focusing on the endocrine system, polymorphism, and gynandromorphism. Dr. Hesse asserts that sex differences are chemical and “abnormals” make up 2-3% of the general population.

Lilly-Marie: A friend of Mark’s who is a gay ex-convict.

Peggy: A young woman who has a romantic interest in Mark buy glass water bottle, but marries Phil.

Quinn: An older Irish man who is the janitor at Mark’s settlement house.

Rico: A Sicilian boy and fruit vendor whose stand is outside Mark’s settlement house.

Evan Rysdale: An artist whom June befriends while summering at Ogunquit, Maine.

Glory: A Harlem nightclub singer.

Mark Thornton: The protagonist of the story, Mark is a 22-year-old Midwestern man who has traveled to New York City. He is not outwardly effeminate and teaches drawing at a local settlement house.

Seth Vaughn: A young man and distinguished author and lecturer who does not return June Westbrook’s affections glass water bottle lifefactory.

June Westbrook: June is a young heterosexual divorcée who works as a newspaper columnist. She is a central character in the story, being Mark’s closest friend.

It has been suggested that the Harlem nightclub entertainer in the novel named Glory is based upon the jazz singer Adelaide Hall who introduced the song “Creole Love Call” in 1927, but this is probably unlikely as Adelaide Hall and Beatrice Lillie are the only contemporary entertainers of the time mentioned in the text. This happens when Hall and Lillie are rumoured to be at the Drag Ball.

Strange Brother has been reprinted a number of times since its initial 1931 Liveright publication in New York, as follows:

Strange Brother received mixed reviews upon its publication. Reviewers were not offended by the homosexual theme and noted the situations in the novel were portrayed with tolerance and sympathy rather than approval. The novel was praised for being interesting and informative, but did not receive praise for its execution as an engaging novel that comes to life.

Henry Gerber, a gay critic wrote in 1934, “[Strange Brother is] an ideal anti-homosexual propaganda.” Ian Young numbers it among a group of early gay novels that is “cast in the form of a tragic melodrama.” George-Michel Sarotte notes the sympathetic nature of the book, but also points out that it “is more of a psychosociological investigation than a novel.” He goes on to credit Blair Niles for being one of the first authors to portray a continuum of sexuality, and for promoting tolerance and compassion.” According to editor and author Anthony Slide, Strange Brother illustrates the “basic assumption that gay characters in literature must come to a tragic end.”

The book has been praised for its journalistic focus. Ben Duncan’s perspective was published in the January 25, 1979 issue of the Gay News newspaper, “The book remains and is welcome now, as a monument of good reporting.” Susan Stryker, a scholar, notes that “[Blair Niles] treats Manhattan’s homosexual subculture much the same way she does any other exotic locale.” Again, Slide notes that Niles’ anthropological approach to documenting homosexuality as well as the Harlem Negro in Strange Brother “is fascinating to a modern readership.” George-Michel Sarotte calls the work a thorough study of a variety of homosexuals, showcasing both whites and blacks, and a range of homosexual life styles from transvestite to the “well-adjusted male”. The homosexual’s legal, and societal relationships both in large cities and small towns are covered. Additionally the psychological history from childhood to adulthood is canvassed, including commitments, identifying with homosexual literature, guilt, solitude, sadness, blackmail and suicide.