United States v. Kirby Lumber Co.

United States v. Kirby Lumber Co., 284 U.S. 1 (1931), was a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that when a corporation settles its debts for less than the face amount, a taxable gain has occurred.

In 1923, the Kirby Lumber Company issued bonds which had a par value of $12,126,800. Later that same year, the company repurchased the same bonds in the open market for a sum less than par value. The difference between the issue price of the bonds and the price at which the company repurchased them was $137,521.30. The regulations promulgated by the United States Department of the Treasury stated that such a cost savings to a corporation was to be considered taxable income. The Court of Claims, however, found in favor of the taxpayer, analogizing the situation in this case to the one in Bowers v. Kerbaugh-Empire Co., 271 U.S. 170 (1925), a case in which a loan repaid in devalued German marks was not considered to be a taxable gain for the taxpaying company.
In a brief, concise, unanimous opinion

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, Justice Holmes upheld the validity of the Treasury regulations

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. He distinguished Bowers v. Kerbaugh-Empire Co. on the grounds that the enterprise in that case had been on the whole a failure, and had lost money

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. In this case

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, the taxpayer had made a clear and obvious gain. By paying off its debts for less than the issue price, it had freed up assets to spend on other things. Interestingly, Justice Holmes said nothing in his opinion about the Treasury’s definition of income. Later cases before the Court did however address directly the Treasury’s definition in connection with related cases.

Far East Command (United States)

Far East Command (FECOM) was a United States military command from 1947 until 1957, functionally organised to undertake the occupation of Japan. It was created on January 1, 1947, and abolished, with functions transferred to Pacific Command, effective July 1, 1957, pursuant to Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) 1259/378. From 1947-51 it was commanded by General Douglas MacArthur, who was then succeeded by Generals Matthew Ridgeway and Mark Clark. Later commanders were Generals John E. Hull, Maxwell D. Taylor, and finally Lyman Lemnitzer.
Its initial army forces in 1947 comprised Eighth Army, XXIV Corps/U.S. Army Forces in Korea, and the Ryukyus, Philippines and Marianas-Bonins Commands (MARBO). There was no overall headquarters for the ground elements within the Far East Command, and the five separate ground commands reported directly to CINCFE. Far East Air Forces and Naval Forces Far East also reported directly to CINCFE, initially giving MacArthur seven subordinate military headquarters.
The Marianas-Bonins Command (MARBO) was established in January 1947 as result a major reorganization of U.S. military forces in the Asia/Pacific region. The MARBO SSI was approved on August 8, 1948. Whether to place the Bonin and Mariana Islands under PACOM or FECOM became a bone of contention. The Navy saw all Pacific islands as one strategic entity, while the Army insisted that FECOM be able to draw upon military resources in the Bonin-Marianas during an emergency. Accordingly, the Commander in Chief, Far East (CINCFE), was given control over local forces and facilities in these islands, while naval administration and logistics there fell under Commander in Chief, Pacific (CINCPAC).
Following signing of the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, September 2, 1945, the Ryukyu Islands were administered by the Department of the Navy, September 21, 1945 – June 30, 1946, with Commanding Officer, Naval Operating Base, Okinawa functioning as chief military government officer under authority of Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet. Transfer of administration from the Department of the Navy to the War Department was authorized by Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) approval, April 1, 1946

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. Pursuant to implementing instructions of General Headquarters U.S. Army Forces in the Pacific (GHQ AFPAC), the Okinawa Base Command was redesignated Ryukyus Command, effective July 1, 1946, by General Order 162, Headquarters U.S. Army Forces, Western Pacific, and made responsible for administration under a Deputy Commander for Military Government

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. The Ryukyu Islands was administered successively by Ryukyus Command, July 1-November 30, 1946

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; and Philippines-Ryukyus Command, December 1, 1946-July 31, 1948; and Ryukyuan Command, August 1, 1948-December 15, 1950. All were seemingly headquartered at Fort Buckner.
The PHILRYCOM marriage of convenience did not last out 1948, as the command was separated into a Philippine Command (PHILCOM) and a Ryukyus Command (RYCOM) on August 1, 1948 (SCAP, GHQ General Order Number 18, July 9, 1948).
In June 1950 GHQ, FEC, located in Tokyo, Japan, with main offices in the Dai Ichi Building, had Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond as chief of staff and Maj. Gen. Doyle O. Hickey as deputy chief of staff. The major subordinate Army commands were Eighth Army, commanded by Lt. Gen. Walton H. Walker; Headquarters and Service Group, GHQ, commanded by Maj. Gen. Walter L. Weible; the Ryukyus Command (RYCOM) under Maj

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. Gen. Josef R. Sheetz; and the Marianas-Bonins Command (MARBO) headed by Maj. Gen

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. Robert S. Beightler. In the Philippines, the Thirteenth Air Force controlled U.S. installations through PHILCOM (AF), a small and rapidly diminishing headquarters commanded by Maj. Gen. Howard M. Turner USAF. Naval Forces, Far East, were commanded by Vice Adm. C. Turner Joy. Far East Air Forces came under Lt. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer. FEAF and NavFE headquarters were located in Tokyo in buildings separate from GHQ, FEC. XVI Corps was activated in April 1951 as the command reserve.
In 1951, during the Korean War, the Joint Chiefs of Staff shifted responsibility for the Bonins and Marianas as well as the Philippines and Taiwan from FECOM to PACOM.
The United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR) was established, effective December 15, 1950, by a directive of Headquarters Far East Command. That directive ordered Commander-in-Chief Far East, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, to organize a civil administration for the Ryukyu Islands in accordance with JCS 1231/14 of October 4, 1950. USCAR continued to function under the Department of the Army (formerly the War Department) from 1950-71.

Rufus Wainwright

Rufus Wainwright en 2010
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Rufus Wainwright (né le 22 juillet 1973 à Rhinebeck (New York) est un auteur-compositeur-interprète canado-américain qui chante en anglais et en français, ayant habité presque toute son enfance à Montréal, où il a d’ailleurs toujours une résidence.

Ses parents sont les chanteurs de musique folk Loudon Wainwright III et Kate McGarrigle. Sa sœur Martha Wainwright est également chanteuse et musicienne. Il commence à jouer du piano à l’âge de 6 ans et fait des tournées avec sa famille dès l’âge de 13 ans. Déjà à cet âge, il compose la chanson du film canadien Les Aventuriers du timbre perdu, intitulée I’m a-runnin’. Il joue d’ailleurs dans ce film son propre rôle.
À l’été 2009, à Manchester, se joue pour cinq soirs le premier opéra écrit et composé par Rufus Wainwright, “Prima donna”. Le spectacle devait commencer une tournée au Canada à l’été 2010

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. Un spectacle visuel et musical adapté de cet opéra, Prima Donna: A Symphonic Visual Concert, est joué en 2015

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Il a eu une fille en 2011, en coparentalité soccer jerseys en ligne, avec Lorca Cohen, la fille de Leonard Cohen

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. Le compagnon de Rufus Wainwright est le « père-adjoint » (Deputy dad).
La même année, il reprend le classique de Serge Gainsbourg

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, Je suis venu te dire que je m’en vais, pour le premier album de Lulu Gainsbourg.
Rufus Wainwright est un descendant direct de Pieter Stuyvesant.
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Gustave Gautherot

Gustave Gautherot, né le 29 mars 1880 à Pierrefontaine-les-Varans (Doubs) et mort le 24 février 1948 dans le 6e arrondissement de Paris, est un enseignant et homme politique français. Docteur ès lettres et professeur d’histoire à l’Institut catholique, il est l’auteur de divers ouvrages consacrés à des sujets historiques et politiques.

Gustave Gautherot est né à Pierrefontaine-les-Varans. Licencié en droit, il est reçu docteur ès lettres en 1907 avec sa thèse consacrée à la Révolution française dans l’ancien évêché de Bâle. Il consacra l’essentiel de ses travaux à la Révolution française, dans une optique royaliste et catholique, à une époque où l’école radicale, menée par Alphonse Aulard, exerçait son monopole à l’Université. En 1908, l’Académie française couronne son ouvrage La Démocratie révolutionnaire, mais cela ne suffit pas à lui permettre de sortir d’une certaine marginalité. Il milite dans les rangs des mouvements combattant la franc-maçonnerie, aux côtés de Copin-Albancelli. Après la Première Guerre mondiale, il collabore à la Revue internationale des sociétés secrètes (RIIS) et devient le correspondant français de l’Entente internationale contre la IIIe Internationale (Internationale communiste). Il publie La Revue antibolchévique, qui change de titre pour devenir La Vague rouge (1926-1932), cette dernière un temps financée par Ernest Mercier, fondateur du Redressement français

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. À partir d’une documentation puisée dans la presse et les revues communistes, Gautherot élabore toute une série d’ouvrages visant à fournir des informations fiables sur l’idéologie, la stratégie et les méthodes communistes.
Le 8 avril 1927, il survola Paris en avion pour lancer un tract anticommuniste : « L’araignée bolchéviste tisse à travers le monde ses toiles perfides. [

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…] En Russie […], elle a massacré des millions d’ouvriers et de paysans 

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; elle a réduit un vaste empire à la misère et au plus brutal des esclavages

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Il s’engage aussi sur le terrain électoral et sera élu sénateur de la Loire-Inférieure, en 1932, et réélu en 1933 soccer jerseys vente.
Ayant voté les pleins pouvoirs au maréchal Pétain en juillet 1940, et après avoir exercé ses fonctions de sénateur jusqu’en décembre 1941, alors que la France collabore avec les nazis, il est déclaré inéligible à la Libération. Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, il continue d’écrire contre ce qu’il considère comme un « complot communiste » avec l’ouvrage Derrière le rideau de fer. La vague rouge déferle sur l’Europe (1946).

Karl Sell (Theologe)

Karl Wilhelm Johannes Sell (* 29. November 1845 in Gießen; † 22

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Karl Sell wurde als Sohn des Rechtsprofessors Wilhelm Sell geboren

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. Von 1863 bis 1867 studierte er in Halle, Göttingen und Gießen Evangelische Theologie

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. Während seines Studiums wurde er 1869 Mitglied der Schwarzburgbund-Verbindung Tuiskonia Halle. In Gießen wurde er zum Dr. phil

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. promoviert. Als Kriegsfreiwilliger nahm er am Deutsch-Französischen Krieg teil. Danach wurde er Vikar und Stadtpfarrer. Von 1882 bis 1891 wirkte er als Oberkonsistorialrat, Superintendent und Oberpfarrer in Darmstadt. 1883 promovierte ihn die Evangelisch-theologische Fakultät der Universität Gießen zum D. theol. 1891 folgte er einem Ruf auf die ordentliche Professur der Kirchengeschichte an der Universität Bonn. Er wurde mehrere Male zum Dekan der Fakultät und 1912 zum Rektor der Universität gewählt. Am 22. Dezember 1914 starb er während seines vierten Dekanats an einem Schlaganfall auf dem Heimweg von einer Aufführung eines Weihnachtsoratoriums.
Seine Forschungsgegenstände waren verschiedene Gebiete der Kirchengeschichte

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, der christlichen Kunst und des deutschen Idealismus. Sell wurde auf dem Kessenicher Bergfriedhof beigesetzt.

Glooscap

Glooscap (variant forms and spellings Gluskabe, Glooskap, Gluskabi, Kluscap, Kloskomba, or Gluskab) is a legendary figure of the Wabanaki peoples, native peoples located in Maine and Atlantic Canada. He is primarily known as the Creator. The stories were first record by Rev. Silas Tertius Rand and then by Charles G. Leland in the 19th century.
In his role as creator, Glooscap is similar to that of the Ojibwa Nanabozho and the Cree Wisakedjak. His name, Kloskabe, means “Man who came from nothing” or literally, “Man [created] from only speech”. There are variations to the legend of Glooscap as each tribe of the Wabanaki adopted the legend to their own region. At the same time, there are consistencies in the legend with Glooscap always portrayed as “kind, benevolent, a warrior against evil and the possessor of magical powers”.

The Abenaki people believe that after Tabaldak created humans, the dust from his body created Glooscap and his twin brother, Malsumis. He gave Glooscap the power to create a good world. Malsumis, on the other hand, is the opposite, and seeks evil to this day.
Glooscap learned that hunters who kill too much would destroy the ecosystem and the good world he had sought to create. Frightened at this possibility, Glooscap sought Grandmother Woodchuck (Agaskw) and asked her for advice. She plucked all the hairs out of her belly (hence the lack of hair on a woodchuck’s belly) and wove them into a magical bag. Glooscap put all the game animals into the bag. He then bragged to Grandmother Woodchuck that the humans would never need to hunt again. Grandmother Woodchuck scolded him and told him that they would die without the animals. She said that they needed to hunt to remain strong. Glooscap then let the animals go.
Later, Glooscap decided to capture the great bird that Tabaldak had placed on a mountain peak, where it generated bad weather in the flapping of its wings. Glooscap caught the eagle and bound its wings and the winds ceased. Soon, the air was so hot and heavy that Glooscap could not breathe, so he loosened the bird’s wings, just enough to generate enough weather so humanity could live.
Modern Abenaki believe Glooscap is very angry at the white people for not obeying the rules he set down.[citation needed]
In one version of the Mi’kmaq creation myth, Glooskap lay on his back, with arms outstretched and his head toward the rising sun, for 365 days and nights, then Nogami, the grandmother, was born as an old woman from the dew of the rock. The next day, Nataoa-nsen, Nephew

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, was born from the foam of the sea. On the next day was born the Mother of all the Mi’kmaq, from the plants of the Earth.
Glooscap was said by the Mi’kmaq to be great in size and in powers, and to have created natural features such as the Annapolis Valley. In carrying out his feats, he often had to overcome his evil twin brother who wanted rivers to be crooked and mountain ranges to be impassable; in one legend, he turns the evil twin into stone. Another common story is how he turned himself into a giant beaver and created five islands in the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia by slapping his huge tail in the water with enough force to stir up the earth. His home was said to be Cape Blomidon. Yet another legend says that when Glooscap finished painting the splendor of the world, he dipped his brush into a blend of all the colours and created Abegweit, meaning “Cradled on the Waves” — his favorite island (Prince Edward Island).
When Glooscap slept, Nova Scotia was his bed, and Prince Edward Island his pillow

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Glooscap is remembered for having saved the world from an evil frog-monster, who had swallowed all the Earth’s water. Glooscap killed the monster and the water was released. Some animals, relieved at the resurgence of water, jumped in, becoming fish and other aquatic animals. Of course, this legend, like many others did have some basis in fact. A massive earthquake converted a mountain on the east side of the Penobscot river into a new channel through a split in that mountain. The eastern side of this mountain became Verona island, and the new river channel passed in-between. Later, when explorers asked where the stone fort Norumbega was, they were told that it lay on the eastern side of the river (which it did prior to the earthquake), and so could never find the new location. It is now located in the north-west corner of the Sandy Point Animal Enhancement Area in Sandy Point, Maine.
Glooscap is also believed to have brought the Mi’kmaq earthenware, knowledge of good and evil, fire, tobacco, fishing nets, and canoes, making him a cultural hero.
Gluskabe created the first humans from the mud of the banks of the biggest, longest river in the area, the Penobscot River. There are many stories that relate to how different animals were created and how they attained their physical characteristics. Gluskabe also had run-in with a trickster spirit, Pomola, until Gluskabe tired of his antics and banished Pomola to the western valley of Mount Katahdin, a holy place. Gluskabe is thought to currently reside in this mountain, protector of the people of this land.
Gluskabe created the Penobscot River

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, the headwaters of which are located at the base of Mount Katahdin, when he fought a greedy giant toad that had swallowed all of the water in the land. Gluskabe killed the toad, and thus created the Penobscot watershed, largest on the northeast coast of what is now known as New England. Of course many stories are based partly in fact. A massive earthquake did change the local geography.
After the earthquake, the old temple was claimed by the Penobscot

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, being previously on the Passamaquoddy side of the river. The “king” of the Penobscot turned it into a royal castle. Formerly called the Temple of Umglebemu, it was renamed Norumbega by the Penobscots, whose name for the defeated Amphibian God was “Kei Checqwalis”. The mountain itself is today called Mt. Tuck; Fort Knox, built following the border dispute with Canada called the Aroostook or “Pork and Beans” War of 1838-1839, occupies its extreme northeast flank at the river’s edge. Another interesting feature is the “Gondola Cove” in Sandy Point. Early Italian explorers supposedly once saw a ships prow sticking out of the mud during a spring ice-out. They described it like a gondola they had seen in Venice (Viking Longboat?).
One story tells of a massacre at the castle. Miqmac natives, with muskets traded by the French, invaded the stronghold, killed or captured everyone, looted what they could find and left. They had been told that the place contained gold jewelry and stockpiles of pearls and jewels. But the invaders found nothing like that. Are they still there? One clue is a row of Standing stones on the mountaintop. They appear to be placed there. The largest is over 40 tons and egg shaped. Only the Penobscot Nation knows for sure. David Ingram described it as being like one of the cities of El Dorado.
In addition to being a spiritual figure, Glooscap also became a major figure of regional identity for the Bay of Fundy region with everything from steam locomotives, the ship Glooscap, schools, businesses and the Glooscap Trail tourism region named after the heroic figure.

Museo de Sitio de Comalcalco

El Museo de Sitio de Comalcalco es un museo arqueológico localizado en el interior de la zona arqueológica de Comalcalco, en el estado mexicano de Tabasco. Fue inaugurado en 1984 y resguarda más de 600 piezas procedentes de esta ciudad maya. Dentro de las piezas más importantes de este museo, se encuentran las urnas funerarias descubiertas en esta zona arqueológica en 1991, así como el texto epigráfico maya más largo encontrado hasta la fecha en Tabasco, inscrito en la superficie de un aguijón de cola de raya. También el museo exhibe 50 de los 4601 ladrillos grabados descubiertos en la zona arqueológica.

El museo de sitio fue inaugurado en junio de 1984 y fue reinaugurado el 8 de octubre de 1994 con el concepto museográfico de los arqueólogos Román Piña Chan, Ricardo Armijo Torres y Mario Pérez Campa.
Remodelado en el 2011, el museo ofrece a sus visitantes una moderna museografía y presenta más de 600 piezas arqueológicas representativas del mundo maya halladas durante décadas de exploraciones, desde su descubrimiento hace 130 años, entre las que destacan 50 ladrillos grabados. Al museo se le construyó una segunda sala en la que se muestran los últimos descubrimientos realizados en la zona arqueológica.
El museo fue construido con un diseño arquitectónico basado en las ideas del poeta tabasqueño Carlos Pellicer Cámara, y el guion museográfico de la arqueóloga Amalia Cardós. En la actualidad cuenta con una moderna museografía y un discurso actualizado, que presenta más de 600 piezas arqueológicas representativas del mundo maya halladas durante décadas de exploraciones, desde el descubrimiento del sitio hace más de 130 años por el explorador Désiré Charnay hasta nuestros días.
En un área de exhibición de 750 metros cuadrados, distribuida en dos niveles y que duplica la extensión que tenía antes de su remodelación, se relata la historia del sitio, el entono natural, los rituales que ahí se efectuaban en la época prehispánica, las costumbres funerarias y la vida cotidiana kurtki bogner.
La construcción incluye, una unidad de servicios para turistas, que consta de dos edificios: el primero dividido en taquilla, expendio de publicaciones kurtki bogner, locales de artesanías, cafetería, sanitarios, área lúdica y oficinas, el segundo: destinado en parte como estancia de usos múltiples, y el resto como sala de proyecciones temática con capacidad para albergar 50 personas sentadas, quienes conocerán a través de videos como era la vida en el esplendor de esta ciudad maya, así como también se pueden observar videos de promoción turística de otros atractivos del estado, en 11 pantallas que se ubicaran a lo largo de las paredes del lugar.
El museo y la sala temática, están climatizados, además se distribuyen materiales gratuitos de información sobre la ciudad maya, tanto en español como en inglés. Sin contar que la museografía de los monumentos se puede leer en 2 idiomas y 2 lenguas, inglés, español, chol y nahuatl.
Cuenta con una sala permanente con 16 vitrinas temáticas que exhiben los vestigios arqueológicos de la cultura maya-chontal, se trata de piezas y esculturas manufacturadas en arcilla, piedra, concha, caracol, hueso y metal.
En el museo se expone, en forma breve y práctica, la historia de Comalcalco durante la época preshispánica. Este museo tuvo como antecedente una colección de piezas arqueológicas reunida por el profesor Rosendo Taracena y sus alumnos al iniciar el siglo XX. Más tarde, Carlos Pellicer Cámara guardó la colección, en la que sobresalía una gran cantidad de ladrillos decorados.
El museo exhibe parte del texto epigráfico maya más largo encontrado hasta la fecha en Tabasco kurtki bogner, inscrito en glifos mayas en el siglo VIII, sobre la diminuta superficie de un aguijón de cola de raya, que formaba parte del ajuar funerario del yajaw k´ahk´ kurtki bogner, “señor de fuego”, Aj Pakal Tahn. Conjuntamente con otros símbolos inscritos en pendientes de concha, el texto suma 260 jeroglíficos y relata 14 años de la vida de este sacerdote; esta ofrenda fue descubierta en 1998, en la fachada sur de los Templos II y IIA de la Plaza Norte de la zona arqueológica, junto con otras 24 espinas kurtki bogner, también con inscripciones, y otros objetos de carácter ritual. Igualmente se pueden apreciar ejemplos de ofrendas, ajuares y urnas funerarias, con un enterramiento dentro de una de ellas.

Archives départementales du Loiret

L’ancien couvent des Minimes, qui abrite les fonds anciens
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Les archives départementales du Loiret sont un service du conseil général du Loiret (région Centre-Val de Loire, France).

Les archives départementales disposent de deux bâtiments dans le centre d’Orléans.
Le premier est celui de l’ancien couvent des Minimes, le centre des archives historiques et généalogiques, qui abrite les fonds anciens (antérieurs à 1800), à l’angle des rues d’Illiers et des Minimes. Le cloître et la chapelle sont classés monuments historiques depuis le 10 septembre 1941

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Le second est un immeuble moderne, la tour d’archives de la cité administrative Coligny

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, construit spécialement dans les années 1990 dans l’ancienne caserne Coligny dans le faubourg Bannier. Il héberge les fonds modernes et contemporains (collections postérieures à 1800).
Lors de leur création

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, les archives départementales du Loiret furent logées à la préfecture, dont elles dépendaient.
Ce n’est qu’à partir de 1833 que fut nommé un archiviste à temps plein, Charles-Louis de Vassal, qui réclama un local adapté mais n’obtint que l’aménagement d’une aile de la préfecture.
En 1861 arriva François Maupré, premier archiviste du département issu de l’école des chartes, qui s’illustra particulièrement par les mesures de sauvegardes qu’il prit lors de la guerre de 1870.
Jules Doinel, en poste entre 1875 et 1895, lança véritablement le classement des archives, en produisant des inventaires pour les séries A, B et C. Son successeur, Camille Bloch, poursuivit ces efforts.
Jacques Soyer, arrivé en 1904, mit à profit la loi de séparation des Églises et de l’État pour obtenir l’installation des archives départementales au petit Séminaire de Sainte-Croix, dans l’ancien couvent des Minimes, devenu vacant. Ce nouveau lieu de conservation ainsi que l’accroissement progressif du nombre d’employés permirent une collecte plus importante de nouvelles pièces et un meilleur traitement des collections.
En 1934, Géraud Lavergne prit la succession de Soyer le coq sportif vente, et s’inquiéta rapidement du manque de place. Dès le début de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, il réclama des moyens pour mettre à l’abri les documents, mais ne put organiser le déménagement que d’une faible proportion d’entre eux aux châteaux de Combreux et de l’Émerillon de Cléry-Saint-André. Le dépôt des Minimes fut victime des bombardements du 18 juin 1940, et brûla presque entièrement.
À la suite de l’incendie de 1940

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, une grande partie des fonds anciens ont été détruits.
Site de l’ancien couvent des Minimes
Site de l’ancien couvent des Minimes
Site de la cité administrative Coligny
Site de la cité administrative Coligny
Site de la cité administrative Coligny
Site de la cité administrative Coligny
Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Eduard Gerlich

Eduard Gerlich (* 3

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. Februar 1836 in Odrau (Österreichisch-Schlesien)

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; † 14. Oktober 1904 in Zürich) war ein schlesisch-österreichischer Eisenbahnbauer.
Eduard Gerlich studierte an der Technischen Hochschule in Wien. Nach gutem Studienabschluss erhielt er auch das Angebot an der Hochschule zu unterrichten. Nach zwei Jahren wechselte er allerdings in die Wirtschaft und nahm einen Posten beim Eisenbahnministerium an. So war er an zahlreichen Bahnprojekten beteiligt, wie der Bahn von Arad im heutigen Rumänien nach Severin in Kroatien oder von Ried im Innkreis nach Braunau oder in Tschechien von Ostroměř über Jičín und Vrchlabí nach Poříčí.
Im Jahr 1875 bekam er die Stelle des stellvertretenden Oberingenieurs bei der Gotthardbahn-Gesellschaft in der Schweiz. Hier war er vor allem für Normen und Verträge für den Bau der Bahn und des Tunnels verantwortlich. Nach der Fertigstellung war er noch kurze Zeit Oberinspektor. Im Band XVI der Zeitschrift „Die Eisenbahn“ aus dem Jahr 1881 beschrieb Gerlich den Bau der Gotthardbahn.
1882 wurde er zusammen mit Karl Wilhelm Ritter Nachfolger von Karl Culmann am eidgenössischen Polytechnikum für Ingenieurwissenschaften in Zürich. Bis 1903 unterrichtete er vorwiegend Eisenbahnbau und Eisenbahnbetrieb.
Eduard Gerlich verstarb am 14. Oktober 1904 in Zürich. Sein Geburtshaus ist in Odry heute unbekannt.
Im Jahr 1966 wurde in Wien Donaustadt (22

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. Bezirk) die Gerlichgasse nach ihm benannt

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.

United States Naval Academy

     Navy Blue
www.usna.edu
The United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or simply Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy in Annapolis, Maryland, United States. Established in 1845 under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second oldest of the United States’ five service academies, and educates officers for commissioning primarily into the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. The 338-acre (137 ha) campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay in Anne Arundel County, 33 miles (53 km) east of Washington, D.C. and 26 miles (42 km) southeast of Baltimore. The entire campus is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites, buildings, and monuments. It replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis.
Candidates for admission generally must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a Member of Congress. Students are officers-in-training and are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is fully funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation. Approximately 1,300 “plebes” (an abbreviation of the Ancient Roman word plebeian) enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer, but only about 1,000 midshipmen graduate. Graduates are usually commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, but a small number can also be cross-commissioned as officers in other US services, and the services of allied nations. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the country according to starting salary. The academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades midshipmen’s performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, and mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academy’s Honor Concept.

The United States Naval Academy’s campus is located in Annapolis, Maryland, at the confluence of the Severn River and the Chesapeake Bay.
In its most recent report, the 2012 edition of U.S. News & World Report ranked the US Naval Academy as the No. 1 Public Liberal Arts College in the nation. In the category of High School Counselor Rankings of National Liberal Arts Colleges, the Naval Academy is also tied for No. 1 with the US Military Academy and the US Air Force Academy. It also holds the No. 5 spot with the US Air Force Academy for Best Undergraduate Engineering programs. In the same year, Forbes ranked the US Naval Academy as No. 17 overall in nation in its report “America’s Top Colleges 2011”.
Prospective candidates must be first nominated by a US congressman, senator, the Vice-President, or the President, or be the child of a Medal of Honor recipient. This nomination typically involves an interview with that specific nominating body and/or retired officers within the same jurisdiction. Candidates must also pass a physical fitness test and a thorough medical exam as part of the application process. In the 21st century, there have been about 1,200 students in each new class of plebes (freshmen). The U.S. government pays for tuition, room and board. Midshipmen receive monthly pay of $1,017.00, as of 2015. From this amount, pay is automatically deducted for the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, services, and other miscellaneous expenses. Midshipmen only receive a portion of their total pay in cash while the rest is released during “firstie” (senior) year. Midshipmen fourth-class (plebes) to midshipmen second-class (juniors) receive monthly stipends of $100, $200, $300, respectively. Midshipmen first-class receive the difference between pay and outstanding expenses.
Students at the naval academy are addressed as Midshipman, an official military rank and paygrade. As midshipmen are actually in the United States Navy, starting from the moment that they raise their hands and affirm the oath of office at the swearing-in ceremony, they are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice, of which USNA regulations are a part, as well as to all executive policies and orders formulated by the Department of the Navy. The same term comprises both males and females. Upon graduation, most naval academy midshipmen are commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps and serve a minimum of five years after their commissioning. If they are selected to serve as a pilot (aircraft), they will serve 8–11 years minimum from their date of winging, and if they are selected to serve as a naval flight officer they will serve 6–8 years. Foreign midshipmen are commissioned into the armed forces of their native countries.
Since 1959, midshipmen have also been eligible to “cross-commission,” or request a commission in the Air Force or Army, provided they meet that service’s eligibility standards. Starting in 2004, midshipmen also became eligible to seek Coast Guard commissions. Every year, a small number of graduates do this—typically three or four—usually in a one-for-one “trade” with a similarly inclined cadet or midshipman at one of the other service academies.
At the beginning of their second-class year, midshipmen make their commitment, also known as signing their “2-for-7.” This represents a commitment to finish two years at the academy and then an additional five years on active duty. Upon graduation, midshipmen are obligated to serve at minimum 5 years of service after graduation. Those selected for post-graduate education will continue concurrently with their commissioning obligation for officers in the US Navy and consecutively for officers in the US Marine Corps.
Midshipmen who entered the academy from civilian life and who resign or are separated from the academy in their first two years incur no military service obligation. Those who are separated—voluntarily or involuntarily – after that time are required to serve on active duty in an enlisted capacity, usually for two to four years. Alternatively, separated former midshipmen can reimburse the government for their educational expenses, though the sum is often in excess of $150,000. The decision whether to serve enlisted time or reimburse the government is at the discretion of the Secretary of the Navy. Midshipmen who entered the academy from the enlisted ranks return to their enlisted status to serve the remainder of their enlistment.
The Navy operates the Naval Postgraduate School and the Naval War College separately. The Naval Academy Preparatory School (NAPS), in Newport, Rhode Island, is the official prep school for the Naval Academy. The Naval Academy Foundation provides post-graduate high school education for a year of preparatory school before entering the academy for a very limited number of applicants. There are several preparatory schools and junior colleges throughout the United States which host this program.[clarification needed]
The academy’s Latin motto is Ex Scientia Tridens, Which means “Through Knowledge, Sea Power.” It appears on a design devised by the lawyer, writer, editor, encyclopedist and naval academy graduate (1867), Park Benjamin, Jr. It was adopted by the Navy Department in 1898 due to the efforts of another graduate (also 1867) and collaborator, Jacob W. Miller. Benjamin states:
“The seal or coat-of-arms of the Naval Academy has for its crest a hand grasping a trident, below which is a shield bearing an ancient galley coming into action, bows on, and below that an open book, indicative of education, and finally bears the motto, ‘Ex Scientia Tridens’ (From knowledge, sea power).”
The trident, emblem of the Roman god Neptune, represents seapower.
The institution was founded as the Naval School in 1845 by Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft. The campus was established at Annapolis on the grounds of the former U.S. Army post Fort Severn. The school opened on 10 October with 50 midshipman students and seven professors. The decision to establish an academy on land may have been in part a result of the Somers Affair, an alleged mutiny involving the Secretary of War’s son that resulted in his execution at sea. Commodore Matthew Perry had a considerable interest in naval education

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, supporting an apprentice system to train new seamen, and helped establish the curriculum for the United States Naval Academy. He was also a vocal proponent of modernization of the navy.
Originally a course of study for five years was prescribed. Only the first and last were spent at the school with the other three being passed at sea. The present name was adopted when the school was reorganized in 1850 and placed under the supervision of the chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography. Under the immediate charge of the superintendent, the course of study was extended to seven years with the first two and the last two to be spent at the school and the intervening three years at sea. The four years of study were made consecutive in 1851 and practice cruises were substituted for the three consecutive years at sea. The first class of naval academy students graduated on 10 June 1854.
In 1860, the Tripoli Monument was moved to the academy grounds. Later that year in August, the model of the USS Somers experiment was resurrected when the USS Constitution, then 60 years old, was recommissioned as a school ship for the fourth-class midshipmen after a conversion and refitting begun in 1857. She was anchored at the yard, and the plebes lived on board the ship to immediately introduce them to shipboard life and experiences.
The Civil War was disruptive to the Naval Academy. Southern sympathy ran high in Maryland. Although riots broke out, Maryland did not declare secession. The United States government planned to move the school, when the sudden outbreak of hostilities forced a quick departure. Almost immediately the three upper classes were detached and ordered to sea, and the remaining elements of the academy were transported to Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island by the USS Constitution in April 1861, where the academy was set up in temporary facilities and opened in May. The Annapolis campus, meanwhile, was turned into a United States Army Hospital.
The United States Navy was stressed by the situation as 24% of its officers resigned and joined the Confederate States Navy, including 95 graduates and 59 midshipmen, as well as many key leaders involved with the founding and establishment of USNA. The first superintendent, Admiral Franklin Buchanan, joined the Confederate States Navy as its first and primary admiral. Captain Sidney Smith Lee, the second commandant of midshipmen, and older brother of Robert E. Lee, left Federal service in 1861 for the Confederate States Navy. Lieutenant William Harwar Parker, CSN, class of 1848, and instructor at USNA, joined the Virginia State Navy, and then went on to become the superintendent of the Confederate States Naval Academy. Lieutenant Charles “Savez” Read may have been “anchor man” (graduated last) in the class of 1860, but his later service to the Confederate States Navy included defending New Orleans, service on CSS Arkansas and CSS Florida, and command of a series of captured Union ships that culminated in seizing the US Revenue Cutter Caleb Cushing in Portland, Maine. Lieutenant James Iredell Waddell, CSN, a former instructor at the US Naval Academy, commanded the CSS Shenandoah. The first superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory, advocate of the creation of the United States Naval Academy, after whom Maury Hall is named, similarly served in the Confederate States Navy.
The midshipmen and faculty returned to Annapolis in the summer of 1865, just after the war ended.
Civil War hero, Admiral David Dixon Porter became superintendent in 1865. He found the infrastructure at Annapolis a shambles, the result of ill military use during the War. Porter attempted to restore the facilities. He concentrated on recruiting naval officers as opposed to civilians, a change of philosophy. He recruited teachers Stephen B. Luce, future admirals Winfield Scott Schley, George Dewey, and William T. Sampson. He reinstated Professor Lockwood. The midshipman battalion consisted of four companies. They held dress parades every evening except Sunday. Students were termed “cadets”, though sometimes “cadet midshipmen”; other appellations were used. Porter began organized athletics, usually intramural at the time.
Antoine Joseph Corbesier immigrated from Belgium and was appointed to the position of Swordmaster at USNA in October 1865. He coached Navy fencers in intercollegiate competition between 1896 and 1914. By special act of Congress, he was commissioned a 1st Lieutenant in the Marine Corps on 4 March 1914. He died on 26 March 1915 and is buried on Hospital Point.
In 1867, indoor plumbing and water was supplied to the family quarters. In 1868, the figurehead from the USS Delaware, known as “Tecumseh” was erected in the yard. Class rings were first issued in 1869. Weekly dances were held. Wags called the school “Porter’s Dancing Academy.” President U.S. Grant distributed diplomas to the class of 1869. Porter ensured continued room for expansion by overseeing the purchase of 113 acres (46 ha) across College Creek, later known as hospital point.
In 1871, color competition began, along with the selection of the color company, and a “color girl.”
In the 1870s, cuts in the military budget resulted in graduating much smaller classes. In 1872, 25 graduated. Eight of these made the Navy a career. The third class physically hazed the fourth class so ruthlessly that Congress passed an anti-hazing law in 1874. Hazing continued in more stealthy forms.
John H. Conyers of South Carolina was the first black admitted on September 21, 1872. After his arrival, he was subject to severe, ongoing hazing, including verbal torment, and beatings. His classmates even attempted to drown him. Three cadets were dismissed as a result, but the abuse, including shunning, continued in more subtle forms and Conyers finally resigned in October 1873.
In 1875, Albert A. Michelson, class of 1873, returned to teach. He began his experiments with optics and the physics of light, which resulted in the first accurate measure of the speed of light. [clarification needed]
In 1874, the curriculum was altered to study naval topics in the final two years at the academy. In 1878, the academy was awarded a gold medal for academics at the Universal Exposition in Paris.
The Spanish–American War of 1898 greatly increased the academy’s importance and the campus was almost wholly rebuilt and much enlarged between 1899 and 1906.[citation needed]
On 23 August 1911, the Navy officers on flight duty at Hammondsport, New York, and Dayton, Ohio, were ordered to report for duty at the Engineering Experiment Station, Naval Academy, “in connection with the test of gasoline motors and other experimental work in the development of aviation, including instruction at the aviation school” being set up on Greenbury Point, Annapolis. Naval flight training moved to NAS Pensacola, Florida, in January 1914.
In 1912, the Reina Mercedes, sunk at the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, was raised and used as the “brig” ship for the academy.
In 1914, the Midshipmen Drum and Bugle corps was formed and by 1922 it went defunct. They were revived in 1926.
Many firsts for minorities occurred during this period. In 1877, Kiro Kunitomo, a Japanese citizen, graduated from the academy. And then in 1879, Robert F. Lopez was the first Hispanic-American to graduate from the academy.
In the late 19th century, Congress required the academy to teach a formal course in hygiene, the only course required by Congress of any military academy. Tradition holds that a congressman was particularly disgusted by the appearance of a midshipman returned from cruise.[citation needed]
The navy rowing team won the gold medal at 1920 Summer Olympics Games held in Antwerp, Belgium. In 1923, The Department of Physical Training was established. The naval academy football team played the University of Washington in the Rose Bowl tying 14–14. In 1925, the second-class ring dance was started. In 1925, the Midshipmen Drum and Bugle Corps was formally reestablished. In 1926, “Navy Blue and Gold”, composed by organist and choirmaster J. W. Crosley, was first sung in public. It became a tradition to sing this alma mater song at the end of student and alumni gatherings such as pep rallies and football games, and on graduation day. In 1926, Navy won the national collegiate football championship title. In the fall of 1929, the Secretary of the Navy gave his approval for graduates to compete for Rhodes Scholarships. Six graduates were selected for that honor that same year. The Association of American Universities accredited the Naval Academy curriculum on 30 October 1930.
In 1930, the class of 1891 presented a bronze replica of Tecumseh to replace the deteriorating wooden figurehead that had been prominently displayed on campus.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed into law an act of Congress (Public Law 73-21, 48 Stat. 73) on 25 May 1933 providing for the bachelor of science degree for Naval, Military, and Coast Guard Academies. Four years later, Congress authorized the superintendent to award a bachelor of science degree to all living graduates. Reserve officer training was re-established in anticipation of World War II in 1941.
The academy was certified in 1937 by the Middle States Association although with reservations about the academic climate.
In 1939, the first Yard patrol boat arrived. These were used to train midshipmen in ship handling.
In 1940, the academy stopped using the Reina Mercedes as a brig for disciplining midshipmen, and restricted them to Bancroft Hall, instead.
In April 1941, superintendent Rear Admiral Russell Willson refused to allow the school’s lacrosse team to play a visiting team from Harvard University because the Harvard team included a black player. Harvard’s athletic director ordered the player home and the game was played on 4 April, as scheduled, which Navy won 12–0.
A total of 3,319 graduates were commissioned during World War II. Dr. Chris Lambertsen held the first closed-circuit oxygen SCUBA course in the United States for the Office of Strategic Services maritime unit at the academy on 17 May 1943. In 1945, A Department of Aviation was established. That year a Vice Admiral, Aubrey W. Fitch, became superintendent. The naval academy celebrated its centennial. During the century of its existence, roughly 18,563 midshipmen had graduated, including the class of 1946.
The academy and its support facilities became part of the Severn River Naval Command from 1941 to 1962.
An accelerated course was given to midshipmen during the war years which affected classes entering during the war and graduating later. The students studied year around. This affected the class of 1948 most of all. For the only time, a class was divided by academic standing. 1948A graduated in June 1947; the remainder, called 1948B, a year later.
From 1946 to 1961, N3N amphibious biplanes were used at the academy to introduce midshipmen to flying.
On 3 June 1949, Wesley A. Brown, the sixth African-American to enter the academy, became the first to graduate, followed several years later by Lawrence Chambers, who would become the first African American graduate to make flag rank.
The 1950 Navy fencing team won the NCAA national championship.
The Navy eight-man rowing crew won the gold medal at 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland. They were also named National Intercollegiate Champions. In 1955, the tradition of greasing Herndon Monument for plebes to climb to exchange their plebe “dixie cup” covers (hats) for a midshipman’s cover started.
In 1957, the Reina Mercedes, ruined by a hurricane, was scrapped.
The 1959 fencing team won the NCAA national championship, and became the first to do so by placing first in all three weapons (foil, épée, and saber). All 3 fencers were selected for the 1960 Olympic team, as was head coach Andre Deladrier. The Navy-Marine Corps Memorial Stadium, funded by donations, was dedicated 26 September 1959.
Joe Bellino (class of 1961) was awarded the Heisman Trophy on 22 June 1960. In 1961 the Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference was started. The Department of the Interior designated the U.S. Naval Academy a National Historic Landmark on 21 August 1961.
The 1962 fencing team won the NCAA national championship.
In 1963, Roger Staubach, class of 1965, was awarded the Heisman Trophy.
In 1963, the academy changed from a marking system based on 4.0 to a letter grade. Midshipmen began referring to the statue of Tecumseh as the “god of 2.0” instead of “the god of 2.5”, the former failing mark.
The academy started the Trident Scholar Program in 1963. From 3 to 16 juniors are selected for independent study during their final year.
Professor Samuel Massie became the first African-American faculty member in 1966. On 4 June 1969 the first designated engineering degrees were granted to qualified graduates of the class of 1969. During the period 1968 to 1972, the academy moved beyond engineering to include more than 20 majors. In 1970, the James Forrestal Lecture was created. This has resulted in various leaders speaking to midshipmen, including Henry Kissinger, football coach Dick Vermeil, and Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia.
The 1970s brought change. In 1972 Lieutenant Commander Georgia Clark became the first female officer instructor, and Dr. Rae Jean Goodman was appointed to the faculty as the first civilian woman. Later in 1972, a decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia terminated compulsory chapel attendance, which had been in effect since 1853. In September 1973, the library facility complex was completed and named for Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz class of 1905.
On 8 August 1975, Congress authorized women to attend service academies. The class of 1980 was inducted with 81 female midshipmen. In 1980 the academy included “Hispanic/Latino” as a racial category for demographic purposes; four women identified themselves as Hispanic in the class of 1981, and these women become the first Hispanic females to graduate from the academy: Carmel Gilliland (who had the highest class rank), Lilia Ramirez (who retired with the rank of commander), Ina Marie Gomez, and Trinora Pinto. In 1979 “June Week” was renamed “Commissioning Week” because graduation had moved to May.
In May 1980, Elizabeth Anne Belzer (later Rowe) became the first woman graduate. On 23 May 1984, Kristine Holderied became the first woman to graduate at the head of the class. In addition, the class of 1984 included the first naturalized Korean-American graduates, all choosing commissions in the U.S. Navy. The four Korean-American ensigns were Walter Lee, Thomas Kymn, Andrew Kim, and Se-Hun Oh.
On 30 July 1987, the Computing Sciences Accreditation Board (CSAB) granted accreditation for the Computer Science program. In 1991, Midshipman Juliane Gallina, class of 1992, became the first woman brigade commander. On 29 January 1994, the first genderless service assignment was held. All billets were opened equally to men and women with the exception of special warfare and submarine duty.
On 12 March 1995, Lieutenant Commander Wendy B. Lawrence, class of 1981, became a mission specialist in the space shuttle Endeavour. She is the first woman USNA graduate to fly in space.
To celebrate the 150th Anniversary of the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis (1845–1995), the U.S. Post Office printed a postage stamp; the First Day of Issue was 10 October 1995.
Freedom 7, America’s first space capsule, was placed on display at the visitor center as the centerpiece of the “Grads in Space” exhibit on 23 September 1998. The late Rear Admiral Alan Shepard, class of 1945, had flown Freedom 7 116.5 miles (187.5 km) into space on 5 May 1961. His historic flight marked America’s first step in the space race.
On 11 September 2001, the academy lost 14 alumni in the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon. The academy was placed under unprecedented high security.
In August 2007, Superintendent Vice Admiral Jeffrey Fowler changed academy policy to limit liberty, required more squad interaction to emphasize that “we are a nation at war.”
On 3 November 2007, the navy football team defeated long-time rival Notre Dame for the first time in 43 years – 46–44 in triple overtime. The two teams have met every year since 1926 and continue a rivalry that became amicable when Notre Dame volunteered to open its facilities for training of naval officers in World War II. The Navy was credited with saving the University of Notre Dame after its enrollment fell during World War II to about 250 students. The navy trained 12,000 men to become officers.
In November 2007, Memorial Hall was the venue for a 50-nation Annapolis Conference on a Palestinian-Israeli peace process.
The student body is known as the Brigade of Midshipmen. Students attending the U.S. Naval Academy are appointed to the rank of midshipman and serve on active duty in that rank. Naval Academy midshipmen are classified as officers of the line, though their exercise of authority is limited by their training status. Legally, midshipmen are a special grade of officer that ranks between warrant officer (W-1) and the lowest grade of chief warrant officer (W-2). However, midshipmen are not entrusted or authorized to exercise Title 10 or Title 50 authority as specified in United States Code.
Midshipmen are classified not as freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors, but as fourth class, third class, second class, and first class.
A member of the entering class—the fourth class, the lowest rank of midshipmen—is also known as a “plebe” (plural plebes). Because the first year at the Academy is one of transformation from a civilian into a military officer, plebes must conform to a number of rules and regulations not placed on their seniors—the upper three classes of midshipmen—and have additional tasks and responsibilities that disappear upon promotion to midshipman third class.
Third class midshipmen have been assimilated into the brigade and are treated with more respect because they are upperclassmen. They are commonly called “youngsters.” Because of their new stature and rank, the youngsters are allowed such privileges as watching television, listening to music, watching movies, and napping.
Second class midshipmen are charged with training plebes. They report directly to the first class, and issue orders as necessary to carry out their responsibilities. Second class midshipmen are allowed to drive their own cars (but may not park them on campus) and are allowed to enter or exit the Yard (campus) in civilian attire (weekends only).
First class midshipmen have more freedoms and liberty in the brigade, and the most challenging responsibilities. While they must participate in mandatory sports and military activities and maintain academic standards, they are also charged with the leadership of the Brigade. They are commonly called “firsties”. Firsties are allowed to park their cars on campus and have greater leave and liberty privileges than any other class.
The Brigade is divided into two regiments of three battalions each. Five companies make up each battalion, for a total of 30 companies. The midshipman command structure is headed by a first class midshipman known as the brigade commander, chosen for outstanding leadership performance. He or she is responsible for much of the brigade’s day-to-day activities as well as the professional training of midshipmen. Overseeing all brigade activities is the commandant of midshipmen, an active-duty Navy captain or Marine Corps colonel. Working for the commandant, experienced Navy and Marine Corps officers are assigned as company and battalion officers.
Midshipmen at the Academy wear service dress uniforms similar to those of U.S. Navy officers, with shoulder-board and/or sleeve insignia varying by school year or midshipman officer rank. All wear gold anchor insignia on both lapel collars of the service dress blue jacket. Shoulder boards, worn on summer white, service/full dress white, and dinner dress white uniforms as well as a “soft shoulder board” version on the white, button-up shirt of the service/full dress blue uniform have a gold anchor and a number of slanted stripes indicating year, except for midshipman first class whose have a single, horizontal stripe and midshipman officers (also first class), whose shoulder boards have a small gold star in place of the anchor and have 1 through 6 horizontal stripes indicating their position.
On the winter and summer working uniform shirt, a freshman (Midshipman Fourth Class or “plebe”) wears no collar insignia, a sophomore (Midshipman Third Class or “Youngster”) wears a single fouled anchor on the right collar point, a Junior (Midshipman Second Class) fouled anchors on each collar point, and a Senior (Midshipman First Class or “Firstie”) wears fouled anchors with perched eagles. First class midshipmen in officer billets replace those devices with the their respective midshipman officer collar insignia.
Midshipman officer collar insignia are a series of gold bars, from the rank of Midshipman Ensign (one bar or stripe) to Midshipman Captain (six bars or stripes) in the Brigade of Midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy.
Depending on the season, midshipmen wear Summer Whites or Service Dress Blues as their dress uniform, and summer working blues or winter working blues as their daily class uniform. In 2008, the first class midshipmen wore the service khaki as the daily uniform, but this option was repealed following the graduation of the class of 2011. First class midshipmen may wear their service selection uniform on second semester Fridays (i.e., naval aviator and naval flight officer selectees wear flight suits; submarine and surface warfare selectees wear coveralls or Navy Working Uniforms with their new command ballcaps; Marine Corps selectees wear MARPAT camouflage utilities). A unique uniform consisting of a Navy blue double-breasted jacket with brass buttons and high collar, blue or white high-rise trousers (white worn during Graduation Week), and duty belt with silver NA buckle, is worn for formal parades during spring and autumn parade seasons.
During commissioning week (formerly known as “June week”), the uniform is summer whites.
The campus (or “Yard”) has grown from a 40,000 square metres (9.9 acres) Army post named Fort Severn in 1845 to a 1.37 square kilometres (340 acres), or 1,375,640 square metres (339.93 acres), campus in the 21st century. By comparison, the United States Air Force Academy is 73 square kilometres (18,000 acres) and United States Military Academy is 65 square kilometres (16,000 acres).
The complex includes McMullen Hockey Arena where the men’s ice-hockey team is located; rugby venues, an indoor hitting, chipping and putting facility for the golf team, and the Tose Family Tennis Center – including the Fluegel-Moore Tennis Stadium.
The Academy baseball team plays at the Terwilliger Brothers Field at Max Bishop Stadium.
In 1850 the academy was placed under the jurisdiction of the Navy’s Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography but was transferred to the Bureau of Navigation when that organization was established in 1862. The academy was placed under the direct care of the Navy Department in 1867, but for many years the Bureau of Navigation provided administrative routine and financial management.
As of 2004, the Superintendent of the Naval Academy reports directly to the Chief of Naval Operations. The current Superintendent is Vice Admiral Walter E. Carter Jr.
The current Commandant of Midshipmen is Colonel Stephen E. Liszewski, USMC (USNA Class of 1990), a career artillery officer and the Academy’s 86th Commandant.
Roughly 500 faculty members are evenly divided between civilian professors and military instructors. The civilian professors nearly all have a PhD and can be awarded tenure, usually upon promotion from assistant professor to associate professor. Fewer of the military instructors have a PhD but nearly all have a master’s degree. Most of them are assigned to the Academy for only two or three years. Additionally, there are adjunct professors, hired to fill temporary shortages in various disciplines. The Adjunct Professors are not eligible for tenure.
A small number of officers at the Academy are designated as Permanent Military Professors (PMP), initially at the academic rank of Assistant Professor. All PMPs have PhDs, and remain at the Academy until statutory retirement. Most are commanders in the Navy; a few are captains. Like civilian professors, they seek academic promotion to the rank of Associate Professor and Professor. However, they are not eligible for tenure.
The Class of 1957 Distinguished Chair of Naval Heritage is an academic professorial chair in the History Department. In order to preserve and promote a better understanding of professional naval heritage in midshipmen at the U.S. Naval Academy, the Academy’s Class of 1957 donated the funds to permanently endow this position. It is designed to be a visiting position for a distinguished senior academic historian, who is to hold the post for one or two years. The position was first occupied in 2006 and, in addition to teaching requirements, the occupant is expected to give the McMullen Seapower Lecture at the Academy’s biennial McMullen Naval History Symposium.
Chair Holders
By an Act of Congress passed in 1903, two midshipman appointments were allowed for each senator, representative, and delegate in Congress, two for the District of Columbia, and five each year at large. Currently each member of Congress and the Vice President can have five appointees attending the Naval Academy at any time. When any appointee graduates or otherwise leaves the academy, a vacancy is created. Candidates are nominated by their senator, representative, or delegate in Congress, and those appointed at large are nominated by the Vice President. The applicants do not have to know their Congressman to be nominated. Congressmen generally nominate ten people per vacancy. They can nominate people in a competitive manner, or they can have a principal nomination. In a competitive nomination, all ten applicants are reviewed by the academy, to see who is the most qualified. If the congressman appoints a principal nominee, then as long as that candidate is physically, medically, and academically found qualified by the academy, he or she will be admitted, even if there are more qualified applicants. The degree of difficulty in obtaining a nomination varies greatly according to the number of applicants in a particular state. The process of obtaining a nomination typically consists of completing an application, completing one or more essays, and obtaining one or more letters of recommendation and often requires an interview either in person or over the phone. These requirements are set by the respective senator or congressman and are in addition to the USNA application.
The Secretary of the Navy may appoint 170 enlisted members of the Regular and Reserve Navy and Marine Corps to the Naval Academy each year. Additional sources of appointment are open to children of career military personnel (100 per year); and 65 appointments are available to children of military members who were killed in action, or were rendered 100% disabled due to injuries received in action, or are currently prisoners of war or missing in action. Typically five to ten candidates are nominated for each appointment, which are normally awarded competitively; candidates who do not receive the appointment they are competing for may still be admitted to the Academy as a qualified alternate. If a candidate is considered qualified but not picked up, they may receive an indirect admission to either a Naval Academy Foundation prep school or the Naval Academy Preparatory School in Newport; the following year, these candidates enlist in the Navy Reserve (or, in the case of prior enlisted members, remain in the Navy) and are eligible for Secretary of the Navy nominations, which are granted as a matter of course. To receive an appointment to the Naval Academy, students at the Naval Academy Preparatory School must first pass with a 2.2 QPA (A mix of GPA and Fitness Assessments), although this is waiverable. A candidate must receive a recommendation for appointment from the Commanding Officer. The appointment process has been criticized as giving preferential treatment towards athletes.
However, children of Medal of Honor recipients are automatically appointed to the Naval Academy; they only need to meet admission requirements.
To be admitted, candidates must be between seventeen and twenty-three years of age upon entrance, unmarried with no children, and of good moral character. The current process includes a college application, personality testing, standardized testing, and personal references. Candidates for admission must also undergo a physical aptitude test (the CFA or Candidate Fitness Assessment [formerly the Physical Readiness Examination]) as well as a complete physical exam including a separate visual acuity test to be eligible for appointment. A medical waiver will automatically be sought on behalf of candidates with less than 20/20 vision, as well as a range of other injuries or illnesses. The physical aptitude test is most often administered by a high school physical education teacher or sports team coach.
A small number of international students, usually from smaller allied or friendly countries, are admitted into each class. (International students from larger allies, such as France and the United Kingdom, typically come as shorter-term exchange students from their national naval colleges or academies.) The Class of 2018 includes 13 international students from: Cambodia (1), Cameroon (2), Federated States of Micronesia (1), Georgia (1), Kazakhstan (1), Korea (1), Mexico (1), Montenegro (1), Nigeria (1), Senegal (1), Taiwan (1), and United Arab Emirates (1).
In 2009 and 2010, a professor complained that less than qualified candidates were being admitted to the Academy. His complaint has been forwarded to the Chief of Naval Operations.
The Naval Academy received accreditation as an approved “technological institution” in 1930. In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law an act of Congress providing for the Bachelor of Science Degree for the Naval, Military, and Coast Guard Academies. The Class of 1933 was the first to receive this degree and have it written in the diploma. In 1937, an act of Congress extended to the Superintendent of the Naval Academy the authority to award the Bachelor of Science degree to all living graduates. The Academy later replaced a fixed curriculum taken by all midshipmen with the present core curriculum plus 22 major fields of study.
Academic departments at the Naval Academy are organized into three divisions: Engineering and Weapons, known as Division I, Mathematics and Science, known as Division II, and Humanities and Social Sciences, known as Division III.
Moral and ethical development is fundamental to all aspects of the Naval Academy. From Plebe Summer through graduation, the Officer Development Program, a four-year integrated program, focuses on integrity, honor, and mutual respect based on the moral values of respect for human dignity, respect for honesty and respect for the property of others.
One of the goals of the program is to develop midshipmen to possess a sense of their own moral beliefs and the ability to express them. Honor is emphasized through the Honor Concept of the Brigade of Midshipmen, which states:
Midshipmen are persons of integrity: They stand for that which is right.
They tell the truth and ensure that the full truth is known. They do not lie.
They embrace fairness in all actions. They ensure that work submitted as their own is their own, and that assistance received from any source is authorized and properly documented. They do not cheat.
They respect the property of others and ensure that others are able to benefit from the use of their own property. They do not steal.
Similar ideals are expressed in the honor codes of the other service academies. However, midshipmen are allowed to confront someone they see violating the code without formally reporting it. It is believed that this method is a better way of developing the honor of midshipmen as opposed to the non-toleration clauses of the other service academies and is a better way of building honor and trust.
Brigade Honor Committees composed of upper-class midshipmen are responsible for the education and training of the Honor Concept. Depending on the severity of the offense, midshipmen found in violation of the Honor Concept by their peers can be separated from the Naval Academy.
Since 1961, the Academy has hosted the annual Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference (NAFAC), the country’s largest undergraduate, foreign-affairs conference. NAFAC provides a forum for addressing pressing international concerns and seeks to explore current issues from both a civilian and military perspective.
Each year a unique theme is chosen for NAFAC. Noteworthy individuals with expertise in relevant fields are then invited to address the conference delegates, who represent civilian and military colleges from across the United States and around the globe.
The entire conference is organized and run by midshipmen, who also serve as moderators, presenters

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, and delegates. The midshipman director is responsible for every aspect of the conference, including the conference theme, and is generally charged with leading a staff of over 250 midshipmen.
Since 1973, the Naval Academy has hosted a major international conference for naval historians. In 2006 it was named after Dr. John J. McMullen, USNA Class of 1940.
The United States Naval Academy (USNA) Small Satellite Program (SSP) was founded in 1999 to actively pursue flight opportunities for miniature satellites designed, constructed, tested, and commanded or controlled by midshipmen.
The USNA MidSTAR Program’s first satellite, MidSTAR I was launched 8 March 2007. The planned MidSTAR II was canceled.
Because the majority of graduates commence directly into their military commissions, the Naval Academy offers no graduate degree programs. However, a number of programs allow midshipmen to obtain graduate degrees before fulfilling their service obligation. The Immediate Graduate Education Program (IGEP) allows newly commissioned Ensigns or Second Lieutenants to proceed directly to graduate school and complete a master’s degree. The Voluntary Graduate Education Program (VGEP) allows the midshipman to begin his studies the second semester of his senior year at a local university, usually University of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, Georgetown University, or George Washington University, and complete the degree by the following semester. Midshipmen accepted into prestigious scholarships, such as the Rhodes Scholarship are permitted to complete their studies before fulfilling their service obligation. Finally, the Bowman Scholarship allows Navy Nuclear Power candidates to complete master’s degrees at the Naval Postgraduate School before continuing into the Navy.
Participation in athletics is, in general, mandatory at the Naval Academy and most midshipmen not on an intercollegiate team must participate actively in intramural or club sports. There are exceptions for non-athletic Brigade Support Activities such as YP Squadron (a professional surface warfare training activity providing midshipmen the opportunity to earn the Craftmaster Badge) or the Drum and Bugle Corps.
Varsity-letter winners wear a specially issued blue cardigan with a large gold “N” patch affixed. Teams that beat Army in a year are awarded a gold star to affix near the “N” for each such victory.
The U.S. Naval Academy’s varsity sports teams have no official name but usually are referred to in media as “the Midshipmen” (since all athletes are, in fact, midshipmen), or more informally as “the Mids”. The term “middies” is generally considered derogatory. The sports teams’ mascot is a goat named “Bill.”
The Midshipmen participate in the NCAA’s Division I FBS as a member of the American Athletic Conference in football and in the NCAA Division I-level Patriot League in many other sports. The academy fields 30 varsity sports teams and 13 club sports teams (along with 19 intramural sports teams).
The most important sporting event at the academy is the annual Army–Navy Game, in football. The 2015 season marks Navy’s 14th consecutive victory over Army. The three major service academies (Navy, Air Force, and Army) compete for the Commander-in-Chief’s Trophy, which is awarded to the academy that defeats the others in football that year (or retained by the previous winner in the event of a three-way tie). Navy won the trophy back in 2012 after two years of residence at the Air Force Academy. Keenan Reynolds (Quarterback 2012-2015) set numerous Navy and NCAA records, including the FBS career rushing touchdown record, arguably becoming Navy’s best quarterback ever. Reynolds finished fifth in the prestigious Heisman Trophy voting

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. In the Army-Navy rivalry, Reynolds became the first quarterback to beat Army in four seasons.
Naval Academy sports teams have many accomplishments at the international and national levels. In 1926, Navy’s football team won the U.S. national championship based on both the Boand and Houlgate mathematical poll systems. and the Navy men’s lacrosse team won 21 USILL or USILA national championships and was the NCAA Division I runner-up in 1975 and 2004. The men’s fencing team won NCAA Division I championships in 1950, 1959, and 1962 and was runner-up in 1948, 1953, 1960, and 1963, and NCAA Division I championships were also earned by the 1945 men’s outdoor track and field team and the 1964 men’s soccer team.
The Academy lightweight crew won the 2004 National Championship. The lightweights are accredited with two Jope Cup Championships as well, finishing the Eastern Sprints with the highest number of points in 2006 and 2007. The college’s heavyweight crew won Olympic gold medals in men’s eights in 1920 and 1952, and from 1907 to 1995 at Intercollegiate Rowing Association regatta the team earned 30 championships. In intercollegiate shooting, the Naval Academy has won nine National Rifle Association rifle team trophies, seven air pistol team championships, and five standard pistol team titles. Navy’s squash team was the national nine-man team champion in 1957, 1959, and 1967, and the boxing team was National Collegiate Boxing Association champion in 1987, 1996, 1997, 1998, and 2005.
There is an unofficial (but previous National Champion) croquet team. Legend has it that in the early 1980s, a Mid and a Johnnie (slang for a student enrolled at St. John’s College, Annapolis), were in a bar and the Mid challenged the Johnnie by stating that Midshipmen could beat St. John’s at any sport. The St. John’s student selected croquet. Since then, thousands attend the annual croquet match between St. John’s and the 28th Company of the Brigade of Midshipmen (originally the 34th Company before the Brigade was reduced to 30 companies). As of 2006, the Midshipmen had a record of 5 wins and 19 losses to the St John’s team.
Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement and convocation, and athletic games is: “Anchors Aweigh”, the United States Naval Academy fight song. According to “College Fight Songs: An Annotated Anthology” published in 1998, “Anchors Aweigh” ranks as the fifth greatest fight song of all time.
Midshipmen have the opportunity to participate in a broad range of other extracurricular activities including musical performance groups (Drum & Bugle Corps, Men’s Glee Club, Women’s Glee Club, Gospel Choir, an annual musical, and a bagpipe band, the Pipes & Drums), religious organizations, academic honor societies such as Omicron Delta Epsilon (an economics honor society), Campus Girl Scouts, the National Eagle Scout Association, a radio station (WRNV), and Navy and Marine Corps professional activities (diving, flying, seamanship, and the Semper Fidelis Society for future Marines). The midshipman theatrical company, The Masqueraders, put on one production annually in Mahan Hall. There is an intercollegiate debate team. Colleges from along the East Coast attend the annual U.S. Naval Academy Debate Tournament. Midshipmen also participate in the Sandhurst Competition, a military skills event.
The Brigade began publishing a humor magazine called The Log in 1913. This magazine was discontinued in 2001 but returned to print in the fall of 2008. Among The Log’s usual features were “Salty Sam,” an anonymous member of the senior class who served as a gossip columnist, and the “Company Cuties,” photos of male midshipmen’s girlfriends. (This last was deemed offensive to women, and despite attempts to incorporate the boyfriends of female midshipmen in some issues, the “Company Cuties” were dropped from The Log’s format by 1991.) The Log was once featured in Playboy Magazine for its parody of the famous periodical, called “Playmid.” “Playmid” was an issue of The Log in 1989 and was ordered destroyed by Rear Admiral Virgil I. Hill, the Academy Superintendent at the time, but a handful of copies did survive, including the one which later showed. Earlier Log attempts to parody were much more successful, with the 18 April 1969, version as the most famous; some sections of this issue can be seen online at an alumni website. In September 1949, the Log began publishing a half-sized Splinter bi-weekly, to alternate with its larger sized publication.
The NDW Police Department-US Naval Academy is a full-service law enforcement agency responsible for policing the US Naval Academy complex.
The Naval Academy first accepted women as midshipmen in 1976, when Congress authorized the admission of women to all of the service academies. Women comprise about 22 percent of entering plebes. They pursue the same academic and professional training as do their male classmates, except that certain physical aptitude standards for women are lower than for men, mirroring the standards of the Navy itself. Women have most recently composed about 17 percent of each graduating class, however this number continues to rise. The first pregnant midshipman graduated in 2009. While regulations expressly forbade this, the woman was able to receive a waiver from the Department of the Navy.
In 2006, Michelle J. Howard, class of 1982, became the first female graduate of the Naval Academy to be selected for admiral; she was also the first admiral from her class. Margaret D. Klein, class of 1981, became the first female commandant of midshipmen in December 2006.
Following the 2003 U.S. Air Force Academy sexual assault scandal and due to concern with sexual assault in the U.S. military the Department of Defense was required to establish a task force to investigate sexual harassment and assault at the United States military academies in the law funding the military for fiscal 2004. The report, issued 25 August 2005 showed that during 2004 50% of the women at Annapolis reported instances of sexual harassment while 99 incidents of sexual assault were reported. There had been an earlier incident in 1990 which involved male midshipmen chaining a female midshipman to a urinal and then taking pictures of her after she threw a snowball at them.
Academy Superintendent Vice Admiral Rodney Rempt issued a statement: “With the benefit of the Defense Task Force’s assessment and recommendations, we will continue to strive to establish a climate which encourages reporting of these incidents, so we can support the victim and deal with allegations fairly and appropriately. The very idea that any member of the Naval Academy family could be part of an environment that fosters sexual harassment, misconduct, or even assault is of great concern to me, and it is contrary to all we are trying to do and achieve. Preventing and deterring this unacceptable behavior is a leadership issue that I and all the Academy leaders take to heart. The public trusts that the Service Academies will adhere to the highest standards and that we will serve as beacons that exemplify character, dignity and respect. We will increase our efforts to meet that trust.” Superintendent Rempt has recently been criticized for not allowing former Navy quarterback Lamar Owens to graduate, despite his acquittal on a rape charge. Some alumni have attributed this to an overeagerness on Rempt’s part to placate critics urging a crackdown on sexual assault and harassment.
In 1979, James H. Webb published a provocative essay opposing the integration of women at the Naval Academy titled “Women Can’t Fight.” Webb was an instructor at the Naval Academy in 1979 when he wrote the article for Washingtonian magazine that was critical of women in combat and of them attending the service academies. The article, in which he referred to the dorm at the Naval Academy that housed 4,000 men and 300 women as “a horny woman’s dream,” was written three years after the Academy admitted women. Webb said he did not write the headline.
On 7 November 2006, Webb was elected to the U.S. Senate from Virginia. His election opponent, then senator George Allen, raised the 1979 article as a campaign issue, depicting Webb as being opposed to women in military service. Webb’s response read in part, “I am completely comfortable with the roles of women in today’s military. … To the extent that my writings subjected women at the Academy or the active armed forces to undue hardship, I remain profoundly sorry.” In a political advertisement for Allen five female graduates of the United States Naval Academy said the article helped foster an air of hostility and harassment towards females within the academy.
The Navy Secretary Ray Mabus on December 21, 2012, issued a statement of shame over a recent sexual abuse study which showed the nation’s service academies continue to have trouble maintaining safe teaching environments in regards to sexual abuse. Reported sexual assaults last year declined from 22 to 13 at Annapolis. The superintendent, Vice Admiral Mike Miller, has enforced a new academy policy, as of January 2013, related to training, victim support, campus security, leadership presence on weekends, and a general review of alcohol policy based on other information in the recent report which shows the actual number of sexual assaults has not declined and that offenses are not reported.
Some traditions have been around for a century or more. Some traditions of the Naval Academy are handed down from class to class. Some have been recorded over the years in academy publications.
Stand Navy down the field, sails set to the sky. We’ll never change our course, so Army you steer shy-y-y-y. Roll up the score, Navy, Anchors Aweigh. Sail Navy down the field and sink the Army, sink the Army Grey.
Blue and Gold Now college men from sea to sea may sing of colors true, But who has better right than we, to hoist a symbol hue, For sailor men in battle fair, since fighting days of old, Have proved the sailor’s right to wear, the Navy Blue and Gold! “Beat Army!”
Four years together by the bay where Severn joins the tide, And by the service called away we scatter far and wide. But still when two or three shall meet and old tales be retold, From low to highest in the Fleet, we’ll pledge the Blue and Gold!
Blue and Gold Now colleges from sea to sea may sing of colors true, But who has better right than we, to hoist a symbol hue? For sailors brave in battle fair, since fighting days of old, Have proved the sailor’s right to wear, the Navy Blue and Gold! “Beat Army!”
Many of his letters today are relished not because of the reforms there advocated but because of the hilarious way he presented them … he was addicted to poetry as a means of expression; he put forth his ideas in rhyme whenever possible, sometimes to the despair of his more serious fellows – but others were occasionally enticed to respond in kind. The war on paper could well be waged in poetry, he felt, for it at least kept the mind higher. The older and more senior he became, the more would he try to lighten the mood of his cohorts by humor in prose and poetry, though the latter, many said, became increasingly atrocious the more elevated its author’s naval rank. Still it served its purpose admirably. As a junior officer it was a way to cloak his ideas in a patina of genteel wardroom horseplay, with the barb of criticism perfunctorily covered.
The United States Naval Academy Alumni Association defines “alumni” as graduates of the United States Naval Academy and former midshipmen who did not graduate from the Academy, after the last Academy class of which they were a member has graduated. This policy to include non-graduates dates to 1931—during the Great Depression—when many midshipmen had to leave the Naval Academy to return home to work and support their families.
Over 50 U.S. astronauts (including six who flew to the Moon)[note 1] have graduated from the Naval Academy, more than from any other undergraduate institution in the United States. Over 990 noted scholars in a variety of academic fields are Academy graduates, including 46 Rhodes Scholars and 24 Marshall Scholars. Additional notable graduates include one President of the United States (Jimmy Carter) who is also a Nobel laureate, one other Nobel Prize recipients (the first American scientist to win a Nobel Prize) and 73 Medal of Honor recipients.
The magazine “Shipmate” is the official magazine of the Naval Academy Alumni Association and is distributed worldwide to members of the Alumni Association and to midshipmen, parents, faculty, administrators, donors, legislators, and friends.
In 2012, Sam Tan Wei Shen, a Singaporean, was the first-ever foreigner to graduate first in his class in the history of the Academy.
Coordinates: 38°58′59″N 76°29′06″W / 38.983°N 76.485°W / 38.983; -76.485