Andrew Bovell

Andrew Bovell (born 23 November 1962) is an Australian writer for theatre, film and television.

Bovell was born in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia and, until recently,[when?] lived in Adelaide, South Australia, before moving to New York. He has recently[when?] moved back to the Adelaide Hills, South Australia. His AWGIE award-winning play, Speaking in Tongues,(1996) has been seen throughout Australia as well as in Europe and the US and Bovell adapted it for the screen as Lantana (2001). Both the play and screenplay have been published by Currency Press along with After Dinner (1988), Holy Day (2001), Scenes from a Separation (written with Hannie Rayson) (1995) and Who’s Afraid of the Working Class? (1998), written with Patricia Cornelius, Melissa Reeves, Christos Tsiolkas and Irene Vela

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. Who’s Afraid of the Working Class? was adapted to film as Blessed.

When the Rain Stops Falling (2008) won the 2008 Victorian Premier’s Literary Award and the 2008 Queensland Premier’s Literary Awards.

Bovell’s film credits include Lantana (2001) and Blessed (2009) as mentioned above. Bovell also co-wrote the screenplay for Strictly Ballroom (1992) with Baz Luhrmann and Craig Pearce and Head On (1998) with Mira Robertson and Ana Kokkinos. His other films credits include Edge of Darkness (2010) starring Mel Gibson and The Book of Revelation (2006). He wrote the thriller film A Most Wanted Man, directed by Anton Corbijn, based on the novel A Most Wanted Man by John le Carré.

In 2010, a production of When the Rain Stops Falling opened in New York. The New York Times reviewed the play describing it as “a fitfully moving but diagrammatic play about the long legacy of unnatural acts” and commenting that “the relationships eventually emerge with an emotional clarity that the play’s elliptical structure works against”.

Emperor Yuan of Han

Emperor Yuan of Han (75–33 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty. He reigned from 48 to 33 BC. Emperor Yuan was remembered for the promotion of Confucianism as the official creed of Chinese government. He appointed Confucius adherents to important government posts.

However, at the same time that he was solidifying Confucianism’s position as the official ideology, the empire’s condition slowly deteriorated due to his indecisiveness and inability to stop factional infighting between officials in his administration, and his trusting of certain corrupt officials.

When Emperor Yuan was born as Liu Shi in 75 BC, his parents Liu Bingyi and Xu Pingjun were commoners without titles. Bingyi was the great-grandson of Emperor Wu, and his grandfather Liu Ju was Emperor Wu’s crown prince, until he was forced by Emperor Wu’s paranoia into a failed rebellion in 91 BC while Bingyi was still just an infant, in the aftermaths of which Prince Ju committed suicide and virtually his entire family was wiped out. Bingyi was spared because of his young age, but became a commoner and survived on the largess of others. One of whom was chief eunuch Zhang He, who had been an advisor for Prince Ju before his rebellion, and who was punished by being castrated.

Circa 76 BC, Zhang wanted to marry his granddaughter to Bingyi, but his brother Zhang Anshi (張安世), then an important official, opposed, fearing that it would bring trouble. Zhang, instead, invited one of his subordinate eunuchs (who had also been castrated by Emperor Wu), Xu Guanghan (許廣漢), to dinner, and persuaded him to marry his daughter Xu Pingjun to Liu Bingyi. When Xu’s wife heard this, she became extremely angry and refused, but because Zhang was Xu’s superior, Xu did not dare to renege on the promise, and Bingyi and Pingjun were married, in a ceremony entirely paid by Zhang (because Bingyi could not afford to). Zhang also paid the bride price. After marriage, Bingyi heavily depended on his wife’s family for support.

Shi was only less than a year old when something highly unusual would happen to his father. Shi’s great-granduncle, Emperor Zhao had died that year, and the regent Huo Guang, having been dissatisfied with his initial selection of Prince He of Changyi, deposed Prince He and offered the throne to the commoner Bingyi instead. Bingyi accepted, and took the throne as Emperor Xuan. Shi’s mother Xu Pingjun was created empress.

This action would cost Empress Xu her life, however, and cost Prince Shi his mother. Huo Guang’s wife, Xian (顯), would not be denied her wish of making her daughter Huo Chengjun (霍成君) an empress. In 71 BC, Empress Xu was pregnant when Lady Xian came up with a plot. She bribed Empress Xu’s female physician Chunyu Yan (淳于衍), under guise of giving Empress Xu medicine after she gave birth, to poison her. Chunyu did so, and Empress Xu died shortly after she gave birth. Her doctors were initially arrested to investigate whether they cared for the empress properly. Lady Xian, alarmed, informed Huo Guang what had actually happened, and Huo, not having the heart to turn in his wife, instead signed Chunyu’s release.

In 70 BC, Emperor Xuan created Huo Chengjun empress. Accustomed to luxury living, her palace expenditures far exceeded the late Empress Xu. Her becoming empress would threaten Prince Shi’s life, as in 67 BC, Emperor Xuan created the eight-year-old Crown Prince Shi and created Empress Xu’s father and Prince Shi’s grandfather Xu Guanghan the Marquess of Ping’en—an action that Huo Guang had opposed. Huo’s wife Lady Xian was shocked and displeased, because if her daughter were to have a son later, that son could only be a prince and not the future emperor. She instructed her daughter to murder the crown prince. Allegedly, Empress Huo did make multiple attempts to do so, but failed each time. Around this time, the emperor also heard rumors that the Huos had murdered Empress Xu, which led him to begin stripping the Huos of actual power, while giving them impressive titles.

In 66 BC, after there had been increasing public rumors that the Huos had murdered Empress Xu, Lady Xian finally revealed to her son and grandnephews that she had, indeed, murdered Empress Xu. In fear of what the emperor might do if he had actual proof, Lady Xian, her son, her grandnephews, and her sons-in-law formed a conspiracy to depose the emperor. The conspiracy was discovered, and the entire Huo clan was executed by Emperor Xuan. For the time being, Empress Huo was deposed but not executed, but 12 years later she was exiled; in response, she committed suicide.

What Empress Huo tried to do influenced Emperor Xuan in his choice of his next wife. At that time, he favored Consorts Hua, Zhang, and Wei, each of whom bore him children. He almost settled on Consort Zhang as his new empress. However, he became hesitant, remembering how Empress Huo had tried to murder the crown prince. He therefore resolved to create an empress who was childless and kind. He decided on the gentle Consort Wang, and created her empress in 64 BC. Emperor Xuan put Prince Shi in her care, and she cared for him well.

Empress Wang would have a role in Crown Prince Shi’s eventual choice of a wife. In the middle of the 50s BC, Consort Sima, the favorite consort of Prince Shi died from an illness. Prince Shi was grief-stricken and became ill and depressed himself. Emperor Xuan was concerned, so he had Empress Wang select the most beautiful of the young ladies in waiting and had them sent to Prince Shi. Wang Zhengjun was one of the ladies in waiting chosen. She bore him his first-born son Liu Ao (劉驁, later Emperor Cheng) circa 51 BC. Prince Ao became Emperor Xuan’s favorite grandson and often accompanied him.

During his years as crown prince, Prince Shi did not have a major role in government, given the forceful nature of his father’s personality. He was taught the Confucian classics by a succession of Confucian scholars, during his pre-teen and teenage years. Prince Shi became and mild-mannered strict adherent to Confucian principles, unlike his father’s effective use of both Legalist and Confucian principles in his governance. This would bring his father’s ire on him. In 53 BC, once, when Emperor Xuan and Prince Shi were having dinner, he suggested that Emperor Xuan employ more Confucian officials in key positions.

Emperor Xuan became extremely angry and commented that Confucian scholars were impractical and could not be given responsibilities, and further commented that Emperor Yuan would bring the downfall of the Liu imperial clan—words that would turn out to be fairly prophetic. This would also bring his father to consider changing the succession plans, as he was also disappointed by Prince Shi’s general lack of resolve. He considered creating Prince Shi’s younger brother Liu Qin, the Prince of Huaiyang, crown prince instead, but could not bring himself to do so—remembering how Prince Shi’s mother Empress Xu was his first love and had been murdered by poisoning, and also how he depended on his father-in-law in his youth. Prince Shi’s position therefore was not seriously threatened.

In 49 BC, Emperor Xuan fell deathly ill

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. Before his death, he commissioned his cousin-once-removed Shi Gao (史高), Prince Shi’s teacher Xiao Wangzhi (zh:蕭望之), and Xiao’s assistant Zhou Kan (周堪) to serve as regents. After he died, Prince Shi ascended the throne as Emperor Yuan.

As emperor, Emperor Yuan immediately started a regimen of reducing governmental spending, with the objective of reducing the burdens of the people in mind. He also started a program for social assistance to provide stipends for the poor and new entrepreneurs. He also, contrary to his father’s governing philosophy, heavily relied on Confucian scholars and put them into important governmental positions.

In 48 BC, Emperor Yuan created Consort Wang Zhengjun, the mother of his first-born son Prince Ao, empress. In 47 BC, he created Prince Ao crown prince.

In 46 BC, alarmed at the high human and monetary cost of occupying Hainan and suppressing the frequent native rebellions, Emperor Yuan decreed that the two commanderies on the island be abandoned. Similarly, in 40 BC, alarmed at the high cost of maintaining imperial temples, he reduced the number of standing temples.

Quickly, in Emperor Yuan’s administration, a factional schism developed—a phenomenon that would plague his entire reign and cause officials to be concentrated on infighting rather than effective governance. One faction included mainly Confucian scholars—his teachers Xiao and Zhou, aligned with an imperial clan member who was also a Confucian scholar, Liu Gengsheng (劉更生, later named Liu Xiang 劉向), and imperial assistant Jin Chang (金敞). The other faction was his cousin-twice-removed Shi, imperial secretary Hong Gong (弘恭) and chief eunuch Shi Xian (石顯). The Confucian faction derived their power from the fact that Emperor Yuan trusted and respected their advice. The “court faction” derived their power from their physical closeness to the emperor and their key roles in processing reports and edicts for Emperor Yuan. Policy-wise, the Confucian faction advocated returning to the ancient policies of the early Zhou Dynasty, while the court faction advocated keeping the traditions of the Han Dynasty. In 47 BC, Hong and Shi used procedural traps to cause Zhou and Liu to be demoted to commoners and Xiao to be retired. Later that year, the court faction would further press Xiao into committing suicide—by tricking Emperor Yuan into believing that it would be appropriate to have Xiao investigated for inducing his son to make a petition for him—something considered inappropriate. Hong and Shi knew that with Xiao’s temper, he would rather commit suicide than face an investigation, and that was what Xiao did. For now, the court faction had prevailed. In actions characteristic of his personality, Emperor Yuan rebuked Hong and Shi harshly for misleading him, and buried Xiao with great honor, but did not punish Hong (who died himself later that year) and Shi.

In 46 BC, Emperor Yuan summoned Zhou back to his administration and gave him a mid-level office, along with Zhou’s student Zhang Meng (張猛, a grandson of the great explorer Zhang Qian). Despite the relatively low positions that Zhou and Zhang had, their advice was highly valued by Emperor Yuan. In 44 BC, he would also promote the highly regarded Confucian scholar Gong Yu (貢禹), who tried not to engage himself in factional politics, to the position of vice prime minister, and heeded many of his suggestions to further reduce governmental spending and to encourage the study of Confucianism.

In 43 BC, there were a number of unusual astronomical and meteorological signs that were considered signs of divine disapproval. Shi Xian and his allies, the Xu and Shi clans, alleged that this was sign of divine disapproval of Zhou and Zhang’s policies. Zhou and Zhang were demoted to local posts. In 42 BC, he promoted another Confucian scholar, Kuang Heng (匡衡), to be his key advisor, and Kuang, aware of the fate of the other Confucian scholars, entered into an alliance with Shi Xian as well to ensure his own safety and power.

In 40 BC, more unusual signs occurred, and Emperor Yuan asked the court faction to explain how they could continue to occur if, as they alleged, they were signs of divine disapproval of Zhou and Zhang. They could not, and so Emperor Yuan summoned Zhou and Zhang back to the capital to serve as advisors. However, this would not last long, as Zhou soon died of a stroke, and Shi Xian found an opportunity to falsely accuse Zhang of crimes and forced him to commit suicide.

Another Confucian scholar would try his luck at shaking the influence of Shi Xian, however, in 37 BC. That man was Jing Fang (京房), who, in addition to studying Confucianism, was also an accomplished fortuneteller. (It should be noted that at this time, fortunetelling was still considered to be a part of Confucian studies—indeed, a highly honored part; it was not until several decades later when Confucians began to disfavor fortunetelling.) Jing, who had become a trusted advisor of Emperor Yuan after Emperor Yuan greatly favored his proposed system for examining and promoting regional officials, accused Shi and Shi’s assistant Wulu Chongzong (五鹿充宗) to be corrupt and evil. Initially, Emperor Yuan believed him, but took no actions against Shi and Wulu. Shi and Wulu soon found out and fought back by accusing Jing of conspiring with Emperor Yuan’s brother Liu Qin, the Prince of Huaiyang, and Prince Qin’s uncle, and Jing was executed.

Around the same time, however, despite Emperor Yuan’s general tendency for pacificism, a military confrontation with one branch of Xiongnu, which had by that time fractured into competing courts ruled by Chanyus Huhanye in the east and Zhizhi in the west. During Emperor Xuan’s reign, Chanyu Huhanye had officially submitted to Han as a subject and received Han assistance. Chanyu Zhizhi, then the stronger of the two, tried to maintain a détente with Han by sending his son Juyulishou (駒于利受), but was not so willing to submit, and soon found himself outpowered by the Han-assisted Huhanye. In 49 BC, the last year of Emperor Xuan’s reign, Chanyu Zhizhi headed northwest and conquered several Xiyu kingdoms, settling his capital at the old capital of one of those kingdoms, Jiankun (modern Altay, Xinjiang). From there, he often attacked the Han ally Wusun, rendering Wusun heavily wounded from those attacks.

In 44 BC, Chanyu Zhizhi sent an ambassador to offer tributes to Han, but at the same time demanded that Han deliver his son Juyilishou back to him. Emperor Yuan commissioned a guard commander, Gu Ji (谷吉), to escort Juyilishou. Initially, under suggestion by Gong and other key officials, who reasoned that Zhizhi had no real intention to submit and was far away, Emperor Yuan instructed Gu to escort Juyilishou only to the Han borders, and let him make the rest of the trek on his own. Gu reasoned that by escorting Juyilishou all the way to Jiankun, he might be able to persuade Zhizhi to submit, and that he was willing to risk his own life to do so. Emperor Yuan agreed, and Gu made the escort to Jiankun. Chanyu Zhizhi was not impressed, and had Gu executed. He then realized that he made a key mistake, and he entered into an alliance with Kangju to conquer Wusun, a traditional enemy of Kangju. They repeatedly dealt Wusun heavy losses for several years.

In 36 BC, two Han commanders—Gan Yanshou (甘延壽) and his lieutenant Chen Tang (陳湯) would take initiative and destroy Zhizhi as a threat, however. Zhizhi, after winning many victories over Wusun and other Xiyu kingdoms, had become exceedingly arrogant, and treated his ally, the king of Kangju, as a subject, and he even executed the daughter of the king of Kangju, who had been given to him as a wife as part of the alliance. He also forced the other kingdoms in the region, even including the powerful Dayuan, to pay him tribute.

Chen felt that Chanyu Zhizhi would eventually become a major threat and devised a plan to destroy him. Reasoning that Zhizhi was a powerful warrior but lacked the affection of the kingdoms that were subject to him, and also that his new capital (on the banks of Lake Balkhash) had only recently been built and lacked strong defenses, his plan was to gain requisition of the colonization forces that Han had in Xiyu and Wusun forces to advance to Zhizhi’s capital in order to capture it. Gan agreed with his plan and wanted to request approval, but Chen feared that civilian officials would disapprove of the plan. Therefore, when Gan fell sick on one occasion, Chen forged imperial edicts and requisitioned the colonization forces as well as the forces of the kingdoms that submitted to Han authority. Once Gan recovered, he tried to reverse Chen’s actions, but Chen warned him that it was too late to do so. They then sent out (after submitting reports impeaching themselves for forging edicts but describing the reasons for doing so), marching along two routes—one half taking a route through Dayuan and the other through Wusun. The forces rejoined when they entered Kangju. They then set a trap for Zhizhi, by pretending that they were running low on supplies—to ward off the possibility that Zhizhi would flee. Zhizhi, taking the bait, stayed in his capital. The coalition forces soon arrived at his capital and besieged it, and Chanyu Zhizhi died in the battle.

Both happy (that his enemy was dead) and fearful (that Han was demonstrating its might), Chanyu Huhanye made a second official visit to the Han capital of Chang’an in 33 BC, and formally asked to become a “son-in-law of Han”. In response, Emperor Yuan gave him five ladies in waiting as a reward, and one of them was the beautiful Wang Zhaojun. Impressed that Emperor Yuan gave him the most beautiful woman that he had ever seen, Huhanye offered to have his forces serve as the northern defense forces for Han—a proposal that Emperor Yuan rejected as ill-advised—but the relationship between Han and Xiongnu thereafter grew stronger and stronger.

Emperor Yuan was a relatively non-womanizing emperor, but he did have two favorite concubines in addition to Empress Wang — Consort Fu (傅昭儀) and Consort Feng Yuan (馮昭儀), each of whom bore him one son. Empress Wang apparently tried to maintain a cordial relationship with both, and she was largely successful, at least as far as Consort Feng was concerned. However, a struggle between Empress Wang and Consort Fu for their sons’ heir status would erupt.

As Crown Prince Ao grew older, Emperor Yuan became increasingly unhappy with his fitness as imperial heir and impressed with Consort Fu’s son, Prince Liu Kang of Shanyang (山陽王劉康). Several incidents led to this situation. One happened in 35 BC, when Emperor Yuan’s youngest brother Prince Liu Jing of Zhongshan (中山王劉竟) died, Emperor Yuan became angry when he felt that the teenage Crown Prince Ao was insufficiently grieving—particularly because Princes Ao and Jing were of similar age and grew up together as playmates—and showing insufficient respect to Prince Jing. Prince Ao’s head of household Shi Dan (史丹), a relative of Emperor Yuan’s grandmother and a senior official respected by Emperor Yuan, managed to convince Emperor Yuan that Crown Prince Ao was trying to stop Emperor Yuan himself from overgrieving, but the seed of dissatisfaction was sown.

As the princes further grew, several things further led to an endearment between Emperor Yuan and Prince Kang. They shared affection and skills in music—particularly in the playing of drums. Prince Kang also showed high intelligence and diligence, while Crown Prince Ao was known for drinking and womanizing. When Emperor Yuan grew ill circa 35 BC—an illness that he would not recover from—Consort Fu and Prince Kang were often summoned to his sickbed to attend to him, while Empress Wang and Crown Prince Ao rarely were. In his illness, apparently encouraged by Consort Fu, Emperor Yuan reconsidered whether he should make Prince Kang his heir instead. Only the intercession of Shi Dan—who risked his life by stepping onto the carpet of the imperial bed chamber, an act that only the empress was allowed to do, at the pain of death—led Emperor Yuan to cease those thoughts. When Emperor Yuan died in 33 BC, Crown Prince Ao ascended the throne (as Emperor Cheng).

Antonio Gandino

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Antonio Gandino (Brescia, 1560 – Brescia, 1631) est un peintre italien de l’époque maniériste (transition entre Renaissance et baroque) qui fut principalement actif à Brescia et à Bergame.

L’importance d’Antonio Gandino est limitée à la région de Brescia

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, mais son œuvre y a assuré le lien entre l’époque Renaissance et le goût baroque. Il faisait en effet partie du cercle étroit des architectes, peintres et sculpteurs brescians qui ont affronté le passage délicat entre les deux époques, c’est-à-dire le Maniérisme, jetant les bases du Baroque dans cette ville.

On conserve un certain nombre de ses œuvres, localisées principalement dans les églises de Brescia et de sa région.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Geisel Library

Geisel Library is the main library building of the University of California, San Diego Library. It is named in honor of Audrey and Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss. The building’s distinctive Brutalist architecture has resulted in its being featured in the UC San Diego logo and becoming the most recognizable building on campus.

The library was designed by William Pereira and opened in 1970 as the Central Library. It was renovated in 1993 and rededicated as the University Library Building, and renamed Geisel Library in 1995. The UC San Diego Library consists of Geisel Library and the Biomedical Library Building, with off-campus locations at Scripps Archives and Library Annex, the Trade Street Storage Annex, and the UC Southern Regional Library Facility.

Geisel Library is located in the center of the UC San Diego campus. It houses over 7 million volumes to support the educational and research objectives of the university. It also contains the Mandeville Special Collections and Archives, which houses the . The Dr. Seuss Collection contains original drawings, sketches, proofs, notebooks, manuscript drafts, books, audio and videotapes, photographs, and memorabilia. The approximately 8,500 items in the collection document the full range of Dr. Seuss’s creative achievements, beginning in 1919 with his high school activities and ending with his death in 1991.

In 1958, Roger Revelle’s efforts to establish an Institute of Science and Engineering adjacent to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography were spearheaded by his desire to immediately construct a science and library building on the present Revelle College site. When the university was eventually constructed, university librarian Melvin Voigt devised a plan to purchase books for the three new UC campuses: UC San Diego, UC Santa Cruz, and UC Irvine. The first Science and Engineering Library in Urey Hall satisfied the science-focused school’s needs. However, as faculty recruits began to found social science and humanities departments, it became clear to Chancellor John Semple Galbraith that the time had come to establish the campus’s main library collections. One of the conditions of Galbraith’s acceptance of the UCSD chancellorship had been that UCSD would house one of the three great libraries of the UC system. To accomplish this end, he formed a committee which commissioned architect William L. Pereira to prepare a master plan for the University Center and its focal point, the Central Library.

Pereira’s plan called for the University Center to be moved north and east women sleeveless dress, along with the proposed library building. This resulted in a revision of the campus long-range development plan: the three “clusters” of four colleges each would be more compact, allowing for an auxiliary library in each cluster. The proposed building was designed around a spheroidal tower, to maximize the stacks area that could be accessed in a given time from the center

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. This tower was to be situated atop a main level containing the staff and public areas of the library. The chosen site allowed for future expansions to step downwards into the canyon. Construction of the first of three increments began in July 1968; the two main floors were constructed first to form the base of the structure. This allowed for the placement of scaffolding to support construction of the tower. The Central University Library building’s topping-out ceremony took place in December 1969 and its formal dedication was in March 1971.

Central Library, combined with the original Scripps Library, the Humanities-Library building (now Galbraith Hall) in Revelle College, and the Biomedical Library (built in 1969), was able to support and represent the growing university for years. In 1990, construction began on a two-story, 136,850 square foot subterranean expansion of the main level. The project included renovation of the existing facility to comply with safety standards and cost $38 million, provided by California’s 1988 Proposition 78. The expansion, designed by Gunnar Birkerts, was completed in February 1993. In 1995, La Jolla resident Audrey Geisel donated $20 million to the UCSD Library, supplementing her 1991 donation of $2.3 million worth of her husband Theodor Seuss Geisel’s original works. In exchange, the library was renamed Geisel Library.

Between the first and second renovations of Geisel Library, several other UCSD library facilities were also renovated or closed. The biomedical library received a $17 million, 43,454 square foot expansion in 2006. In 2011, the SIO library, the IR/PS library, the Hillcrest Medical Center library, and the Center for Library Instruction and Computing Services (CLICS) were closed and their collections consolidated into Geisel Library due systemwide budget cuts. In 2015, university officials announced that Geisel Library would begin to undergo its second renovation. This renovation includes construction of a café named Audrey’s on the main level of the library.

The distinctive original building was designed in the late 1960s by William Pereira to sit at the head of a canyon. William Pereira & Associates prepared a detailed in 1969. Pereira originally conceived a steel-framed building, but this was changed to reinforced concrete to save on construction and maintenance costs. This change of material presented an opportunity for a more sculptural design. It was envisioned that future additions to the original building would form terraced levels around the tower base descending into the canyon. In keeping with the original master plan, these are “deliberately designed to be subordinated to the strong, geometrical form of the existing library.” Within its two subterranean levels are the other library sections as well as study spaces and computer labs. The tower is a prime example of brutalist architecture. It rises 8 stories to a height of 110 ft (33.5 m). The five upper stories of the tower house collections, individual study space, and group study rooms.

The library entrance is marked by John Baldessari’s READ/WRITE/THINK/DREAM, an artwork which is part of the Stuart Collection. Geisel Library also features a life-size bronze statue of its namesake and his most famous character, The Cat in the Hat, on the forum level.

The east side of the Geisel forum is literally and symbolically connected to Warren Mall by the Stuart Collection work Snake Path, Alexis Smith’s 560-foot-long slate tile path that winds towards the library. Its route passes a giant granite Paradise Lost and a small garden of fruit trees. The granite book is engraved with the excerpt “Then Wilt Thou Not Be Loth To Leave This Paradise, But Shall Possess A Paradise Within Thee, Happier Far.”

One unusual feature of the library is that the lower levels are numbered 1 and 2, and the upper floors numbered 4 through 8

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. This has given rise to several fanciful explanations for why the third floor is apparently sealed off and not accessible from elevators or steps.

One of the more popular stories is that the building’s design had not taken into account the eventual weight of books in the library, so the third floor has of necessity been left empty. This is a common urban legend, associated at different times with many other university libraries.

In reality, the “missing” third floor is actually the open/outside forum. There is no other third floor, blocked off or otherwise. It is simply reinforced concrete and an emergency exit that helps students from the 4-8 floors get out without having to go to the second floor. The “third floor” is actually two separate levels. The third floor landings in the public stairwells open to the concrete platform outside the library which was originally intended to be used for sculpture displays, acoustic music, impromptu outdoor conversations, an open public meeting area and poetry readings. Due to potential theft of library materials and the risks attributed to the potential theft of UCSD’s rare private collections of literature and art, the doors to third floor were protected to be only used in case of emergencies or for building personnel to conduct transfer of equipment to the central core directly, so as not to disrupt library operations. The “second” third floor’s landing is numbered as floor “3.5” and consists of utility connections and wiring to the upper levels. There are no access-ways beyond the stairwell doors of floor 3.5; they are locked utility rooms, essentially for maintenance and repair. The doors to the 3rd floor open outwards from the stairwells while the 3.5 floor doors open inwards towards the central core. The Central Forum, the 3rd floor, was originally intended to be a ‘formal’ area of the library, but outside the interior so as not to disturb library patrons or library operations.

The UC San Diego Library provides access to over 7 million digital and print works. Most of its works are organized into collections by subject, but the library also maintains some special collections and collections of distinction. The Mandeville Special Collections and Archives include:

The 2011 consolidation of the UC San Diego Library resulted in Geisel Library and the Biomedical Library building in the School of Medicine becoming the only remaining library buildings on campus. Additional library materials are located at the Trade Street Storage Annex on Miramar Road and the UC Southern Regional Library Facility at UCLA.

Isiah Robertson

Isiah “Butch” Robertson (born August 17, 1949 in New Orleans, Louisiana) is a former professional American football player who played linebacker for the Los Angeles Rams (1971–1978) and the Buffalo Bills (1979–1982). He was selected to six Pro Bowls during his years with the Rams. He picked off 25 passes in his career, returning three for touchdowns. He scored a fourth touchdown on a fumble recovery in 1978. According to Rams and Bills records, Robertson also sacked the quarterback 25½ times and recorded 16 fumbles in his career.

Isiah Robertson combined size, strength, quickness, speed, toughness, and a knack for making the game-breaking play. Isiah was one of the NFL’s fastest linebackers. He was clocked at 4.6 in the 40-yard dash.

In 1970, his senior year at Southern University, he made 112 tackles and had 45 assists. Isiah was chosen to The Sporting News and TIME 1970 All-American team in 1970 as well as being named AP and UPI small college All-American Teams. Isiah returned an interception 102 yards for a game-winning touchdown against Grambling with only a few seconds to play.

He still holds the longest interception record (102 yards) and had 11 interceptions in 3 years. He concluded his college career by receiving a Bachelor of Science degree in business marketing.

He was a first-round draft choice of the Los Angeles Rams in 1971, the 10th player chosen overall.

In 1971, Isiah’s rookie year, he established himself as one of the NFL’s new stars, replacing the departed Jack Pardee as the Rams’ starting strongside linebacker. He was voted Defensive Rookie of the Year, selected Second-team All-NFL and also chosen to the Pro Bowl

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, played at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The Rams posted an 8-5-1 record, but missed the playoffs by half a game. The game which cost the Rams the playoffs might very well have been Isiah’s first, when the Rams lost 24-20 to the New Orleans Saints when fellow rookie Archie Manning scored a touchdown on the game’s final play.

In 1973 Robertson was voted First-team All-Pro. It was one of the best seasons of his brilliant career. He intercepted 3 passes that season and returned one interception 49 yards for a touchdown against the New York Giants on Monday Night Football. It was the first touchdown of his career. Isiah Robertson was considered by many as the best linebacker in the NFL. The Rams finished with a great 12-2 record and won the Western division.

In 1974, Isiah had an excellent season making All-Pro once again and named to his third Pro Bowl. The Rams posted a 10-4 record and won the Western division title again. In the playoffs, the Rams played the Washington Redskins. In the 4th quarter, with the Rams leading the Redskins only 13-10, Isiah intercepted quarterback Sonny Jurgensen’s pass and ran 59 yards for a touchdown that sealed a 19-10 victory for the Rams.

In 1975 was voted All-Pro and made the Pro Bowl for the fourth time. He intercepted 4 passes for 118 yards and 1 touchdown. On Monday Night Football, against the Philadelphia Eagles, Isiah intercepted a pass and ran 76 yards for a touchdown showcasing his great speed. The Rams beat the Eagles 42-3. In 1975 the Rams finished with a 12-2 record and won their division. In the playoffs, the Rams defeated the explosive St. Louis Cardinals 35-23. The Los Angeles Rams would face the Dallas Cowboys in the 1975 NFC Championship game.

Isiah Robertson was a First-team All-Pro in 1976 and a Second-team choice in 1977 while making the Pro Bowl both seasons.

In 1978, his last year with the Rams, he was credited with 25 tackles, 4 sacks, and 2 fumble recoveries. Isiah returned a fumble 16 yards for a touchdown against the Minnesota Vikings in a Rams 34- 17 victory. He only started 6 of the 13 games he played in women fashion jewelry, losing his starting job to Bob Brudzinski

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. Robertson may be best known for a play in the 1978 season, when, while attempting to tackle then-rookie Houston Oilers running back (and NFL Hall Of Famer) Earl Campbell, Robertson was head-butted in the sternum and run over by Campbell on his way down the field against the Rams. The play is often shown as a part of NFL Films highlights; especially those concerning Campbell. What is not commonly known is that Campbell was knocked out of that game by a hard hit to his thigh.

After the season, the Rams traded Isiah to the Buffalo Bills. After he was traded Robertson signed a 4-year $1 million contract making him among the highest paid NFL linebackers, averaging $250,000 a season. In 1979, in his first year as a member of the Bills, Isiah brought his 8 years experience and football savvy to the young Bills linebacking corps, which included standout rookie Jim Haslett. He had another outstanding year. Isiah registered 96 tackles, a quarterback sack, recovered 2 fumbles, and had 2 interceptions. In a game against the Cincinnati Bengals, he intercepted a pass and ran 23 yards for a touchdown. It was the last touchdown of his career.

In 1980, Isiah had 85 tackles. The Bills posted an 11-5 record and won the Eastern division. They lost 20-14 in the playoffs to the San Diego Chargers.

In 1981, Robertson had 50 tackles and 31 assists for a total of 81 tackles. The Buffalo Bills posted a 10-6 record and were a wild card team in the playoffs. They defeated the New York Jets 31-27 in the playoffs and then lost to the Cincinnati Bengals in another playoff game.

Isiah would play one more year, 1982, in which he was a backup.

Valmiera

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;”> Aussprache?/i), auf Deutsch Wolmar, ist eine Stadt im Norden Lettlands beiderseits des Flusses Gauja etwa 100 km nordöstlich von Riga und 50 km von der Grenze zu Estland. Valmiera ist eine der neun Republik-Städte Lettlands. Mit mehr als 25.000 Einwohnern ist sie größte Stadt der Region Vidzeme und kulturelles Zentrum. In der Nähe befindet sich der Nationalpark Gauja.

Archäologen fanden Siedlungsspuren aus der Zeit um 7000 v. Chr. In historischer Zeit war Valmiera von Lettgallen besiedelt. 1224 geriet das Gebiet an der Gauja unter Kontrolle der Kreuzritter, die hier eine Burg anlegten. 1323 wurde die „Stadt Woldemars“ erstmals schriftlich erwähnt, wobei der Ort bereits 40 Jahre früher bestand, als der Hochmeister des Livländischen Ordens Wilhelm von Schauenburg die Burg „Wolmar“ und eine katholische Kirche für den heiligen Simeon an den Flussufern der Gauja erbauen ließ. Vom 14. bis 16. Jahrhundert war die aufstrebende Handelsstadt Mitglied der Hanse.

Im Juni 1525 fand in Wolmar ein Landtag statt, auf dem u. a. eine allgemeine Landordnung beschlossen wurde. Als Teil des Herzogtums Livland gehörte Valmiera von 1566 bis 1622 zum Großfürstentum Litauen und zu Polen-Litauen

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. 1622 wurde das nördliche Livland von den Schweden erobert

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. Valmiera war Besitz des Reichskanzlers Axel Oxenstierna. Es folgten mehrere Kriege und eine Pestepidemie. Während des großen nordischen Kriegs wurde Wolmar 1702 zerstört und niedergebrannt.

Als Teil des russischen Gouvernement Livland folgte dann eine lange Friedenszeit. 1738 wurde Valmiera Ausgangspunkt der Herrnhuter Gemeinde, als hier ein Lehrerseminar gegründet wurde. Die Kreisstadt bekam 1865 eine Holzbrücke und 1899 Eisenbahnanschluss. Damit setzte auch die Industrialisierung ein, und neue Stadtteile jenseits der Gauja entstanden. Vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg bestanden unter anderem ein Lehrerseminar, ein Mädcheninternat und eine Handelsschule.

Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg kam Valmiera zur neu gegründeten Republik Lettland.

Vom historischen Stadtkern ist nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, in dem ein Drittel der Stadt niederbrannte, außer der gotischen Simeonskirche kaum etwas übrig geblieben.

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