Ohrlappenpilzverwandte

Judasohr (Auricularia auricula-judae)

Die Ohrlappenpilzverwandten (Auriculariaceae) sind derzeit (Stand: 2015) die einzige Familie innerhalb der Ordnung der Ohrlappenpilzartigen (Auriculariales). Die Pilze haben gallertartige Fruchtkörper und segmentierte Basidien. Die Familie enthält über 100 Arten, die als Saprobionten auf totem Holz wachsen. Einige Arten sind besonders in Ostasien häufig kultivierte Speisepilze. Auch die Gattungen, die früher in die Familie der Drüslingsverwandten (Exidiaceae) gestellt wurden, gehören neuerdings zu den Ohrlappenpilzverwandten.

Die gallertigen Fruchtkörper sind resupinat oder abgeflacht und nur selten gestielt. Sie sind meist blass oder bräunlich gefärbt. Ihre sterile Oberfläche kann glatt oder behaart sein. Das Hymenium ist glatt, grubig gefaltet oder wabenförmig genetzt. Die Hyphen haben Schnallen, ihre Form ist variabel. Die mehr oder weniger zylindrischen Basidien sind als typische Phragmobasidien durch drei Quersepten in vier hintereinanderliegende Einzelzellen unterteilt. Aus jeder dieser Zellen wächst ein langes, fadenförmiges Sterigma aus, an dessen Spitze eine nierenförmige bis allantoide (würstchenförmige) Basidiospore gebildet wird. Die hyalinen Sporen sind glatt und inamyloid. Aus diesen zuletzt mehrzelligen Basidiosporen, können entweder Hyphen oder Sekundärsporen (häkchenförmige Mikrokonidien) auskeimen.

Die früher in die Familie der Drüslingsverwandten gestellten Gattungen haben resupinate, pustelartige oder scheibenförmige Fruchtkörper, die membranartig, wachsartig oder mehr oder weniger gallertig sein können. Die Färbung ist sehr variabel. Die Hyphen sind oft gelatinisiert und das Hymenium glatt, höckerig oder stachelig. Die großen Basidien sind eiförmig bis ellipsoid und längs (kreuzförmig) septiert. Sie tragen eine basale Schnalle und lange, oft gewundene, röhrige Sterigmen. Neben den Basidien findet man oft dünne, verzweigte und knotige Hyphidien. Die dünnwandigen, glatten und hyalinen Basidiosporen sind normalerweise allantoid. Auch aus ihnen keimen oft gekrümmte Mikrokonidien aus.

Alle Arten innerhalb der Familie der Ohrlappenpilzverwandten scheinen Saprobionten zu sein best water bottle. Die meisten von ihnen wachsen auf abgestorbenen Ästen, toten Stämmen oder auf Fallholz. Die Familie ist weltweit verbreitet. Laut einer Schätzung von 2008 enthält die Familie sieben Gattungen und über 100 Arten.

Die wichtigste und artenreichste Gattung ist Auricularia, außerdem werden heute Eichleriella, Exidia, Exidiopsis und Heterochaete der Familie der Pilzlappenverwandten zugeordnet, die früher in die Familie der Exidiaceae und in die Ordnung der Zitterlingsartigen (Tremellales) gestellt wurden.

Auricularia auricula-judae, das Judasohr.

Eichleriella deglubens, der Dornige Wachsrindenschwamm ist ein resupinater Verwandter des Judasohrs

Exidia glandulosa (Syn. E. truncata), der Stoppelige Drüsling ist die Typusart der Gattung Exidia

Exidia nigricans (Syn.&nbsp sleeve for water bottle;E. plana), der Warzige Drüsling ist in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz der häufigste Vertreter der Gattung australian goalkeeper gloves.

Exidiopsis calcea, die Kalkfarbene Gallertkruste, bildet ebenfalls resupinate Fruchtkörper aus.

Die Familie Auriculariaceae wurde 1897 von dem deutschen Mykologen Gustav Lindau beschrieben, um Pilzarten zu vereinen, die ein “gymnocarpes” (frei stehendes) Hymenium und auricularioide Basidien haben. Als auricularioid bezeichnet man Basidien, die mehr oder weniger zylindrisch sind und durch drei Quersepten in vier übereinanderliegende Zellen unterteilt werden. Der Taxon war allerdings schon von Elias Magnus Fries in seiner Epicrisis systematis mycologici als Auricularini beschrieben worden. Neben der Gattung Auricularia stellte Lindau auch die Gattungen Platygloea, Jola, Saccoblastia (heute Helicogloea) und die Gattung Stypinella (heute Helicobasidium) in die neue Familie. Platygloea, Jola, Helicogloea und Helicobasidium werden heute in die Unterabteilung Pucciniomycotina gestellt, zu denen auch die Rostpilze gehören.

Der amerikanische Mykologe Bandoni revidierte 1984 das Familienkonzept. Er schlug ein alternatives Klassifikationssystem für die Auriculariales und Tremellales vor, dass sich auf mikromorphologische, ultrastrukturelle und ökologische Merkmale stützte. Alle Arten mit einfachen Septenporen schloss er aus der Ordnung Auriculariales aus und stellte alle Arten mit Doliporen in die Ordnung, unabhängig davon, ob sie quer oder längsseptierte Basidien hatten. Die Familie der Auriculariaceae enthielt nur die Arten, die einen auricularoiden Basidientyp hatte, wodurch die Familie auf die Gattung Auricularia reduziert wurde. Arten mit längsseptierten Basidien und schnallentragenden Hyphen hingegen stellte er in die Familie der Exidiaceae.

Molekularbiologische Untersuchungen des LSU-nrDNA-Gens haben gezeigt, dass die Familie der Judasohrverwandten zusammen mit den Drüslingsverwandten (Exidiaceae) eine nicht trennbare Abstammungsgemeinschaft bilden. Zu dem Monophylum gehören neben Exidia auch die nah verwandten Gattungen Eichleriella, Exidiopsis und Heterochaete.

Einige Auriculariaarten sind beliebte Speisepilze und werden besonders in der asiatischen Küche gerne verwendet. Besonders zwei Arten sind von Bedeutung: das Judasohr (Auricularia auricula-judae) und die als Chinesische Morchel bezeichnete Auricularia polytricha. Beide sind vor allem in China und Südostasien wirtschaftlich bedeutende Speisepilze und werden auf Holz oder auf Sägespäne kultiviert. Sie spielen auch in der traditionellen chinesischen Medizin eine wichtige Rolle, Auricularia soll Cholesterin-senkende Eigenschaften haben.

Gospel of Judas

The Gospel of Judas is a Gnostic gospel whose content consists of conversations between Jesus and Judas Iscariot. It is thought to have been composed in the second century by Gnostic Christians, not by the protagonist Judas, since it contains late 2nd century theology. The only copy of it known to exist is a Coptic language text that has been carbon dated to AD 280, plus or minus 60 years. Joseph Barabe presented the behind-the-scenes story of the role an analysis of the ink played in authenticating the book at an American Chemical Society meeting. It has been suggested that the text derives from an earlier Greek version. A translation of the text was first published in early 2006 by the National Geographic Society.

In contrast to the canonical gospels, which paint Judas as a betrayer who delivered Jesus to the authorities for crucifixion in exchange for money, the Gospel of Judas portrays Judas’s actions as done in obedience to instructions given to him by Christ. It does not claim that the other disciples knew about Jesus’s true teachings. On the contrary, it asserts that they had not learned the true Gospel, which Jesus taught only to Judas Iscariot, the sole follower belonging to the “holy generation” among the disciples.

A leather-bound Coptic language papyrus document that surfaced during the 1970s, near Beni Masar, Egypt wyoming football uniforms, was named the Codex Tchacos after an antiquities dealer, Frieda Nussberger-Tchacos, who became concerned about the deteriorating condition of the manuscript. First translated in the early 2000s, the codex contains text that appears to be from the late 2nd century, and includes the self-titled “Gospel of Judas.” (Euangelion Ioudas) which relates the story of Jesus’s death from the viewpoint of Judas.

The manuscript was radiocarbon dated “between the third and fourth centuries”,[this quote needs a citation] according to Timothy Jull, a carbon-dating expert at the University of Arizona’s physics center, and described by the National Geographic as being from AD 280, plus or minus 60 years.

Today the manuscript is in over a thousand pieces, with many sections missing due to poor handling and storage. Some passages are only scattered words; others contain many lines. According to Rodolphe Kasser, the codex originally contained 31 pages, with writing on both sides; however, when it came to the market in 1999, only 13 pages remained. It is speculated that individual pages had been removed and sold.[citation needed]

It has also been speculated, on the basis of textual analysis concerning features of dialect and Greek loan words, that the Coptic text contained in the codex may be a translation from an older Greek manuscript dating, at the earliest, to approximately AD 130–170. Cited in support is the reference to a “Gospel of Judas” by the early Christian writer Irenaeus of Lyons, who, in arguing against Gnosticism, called the text a “fictitious history”. However, it is uncertain whether the text mentioned by Irenaeus is in fact the same text as the Coptic “Gospel of Judas” found in the Codex Tchachos.

A. J. Levine, who was on the team of scholars responsible for unveiling the work, said that the Gospel of Judas contains no new historical information concerning Jesus or Judas, but that the text is helpful in reconstructing the history of Gnosticism, especially in the Coptic-speaking areas.

The Gospel of Judas consists of 16 chapters which document Jesus’s teaching about spiritual matters and cosmology. Judas is the only one of Jesus’s disciples who accurately understands the words of his master. This Gospel contains few narrative elements; essentially, the Gospel records how Judas was taught by Jesus the true meaning of his message.

The Gospel contains ideas which contradicted those circulating in the early Christian church. The author argues that God is essentially a “luminous cloud of light” who exists in an imperishable realm. Adamas, the spiritual father of all humanity, was created in God’s image and dwelled in the imperishable realm.

At the beginning of time, God created a group of angels and lower gods. Twelve angels were willed to “come into being [to] rule over chaos and the [underworld].”

The angels of creation were tasked with creating a physical body for Adamas, which became known as the first man Adam. Gradually, humanity began to forget its divine origins and some of Adam’s descendants (Cain and Abel) became embroiled in the world’s first murder. Many humans came to think that the imperfect physical universe was the totality of creation, losing their knowledge of God and the imperishable realm.

Jesus was sent as the Son of the true God, not of one of the lesser gods. His mission was to show that salvation lies in connecting with the God within the man. Through embracing the internal God, the man can then return to the imperishable realm.

Eleven of the disciples Jesus chose to spread his message misunderstood the central tenets of His teaching. They were obsessed with the physical world of the senses. They continued to practise religious animal sacrifice, which pleased the lower gods but did not help to foster a connection with the true God. They wrongly taught that those martyred in the name of Christ would be bodily resurrected.

In contrast, Jesus is able to teach Judas the true meaning of his life, ministry and death. Mankind can be divided into two races, or groups. Those who are furnished with the immortal soul, like Judas, can come to know the God within and enter the imperishable realm when they die. Those who belong to the same generation of the other eleven disciples cannot enter the realm of God and will die both spiritually and physically at the end of their lives. As practices that are intertwined with the physical world, animal sacrifice and a communion ceremony centered around cannibalism (the symbolic consumption of Jesus’ flesh and blood) are condemned as abhorrent. Death is seen not as a glorious event but simply as a way to escape the perishable realm of the flesh.

Of crucial importance is the author’s understanding of Jesus’ death. The other Gospels argue that Jesus had to die in order to atone for the sins of humanity. The author of Judas expresses the view that this sort of substitutionary justice pleases the lower gods and angels. The true God is gracious and thus does not demand any sacrifice.

Pagels and King argue that a more nuanced, contextualized understanding of alternative interpretations of the Christian tradition should inform discussions of Gnosticism. In the centuries following Jesus’s death, many differing views of the meaning of his life and death existed. Nicene Christianity (i.e. the views which came to be summarized in the doctrines contained in the Nicene Creed) existed alongside various cults (one of which was labelled ‘Gnosticism’) for centuries, until the Nicenian interpretation became accepted as “mainstream” Christianity.

Before the discovery of so-called Gnostic texts (such as the Nag Hammadi library), scholars had to rely solely on the reports of proto-Nicene church fathers for their understanding of alternative approaches to understanding Christianity. These reports were necessarily biased since they were written by people opposed to non-Nicene churches. Furthermore, study and analysis of original non-Nicene texts has shown that the church fathers sometimes oversimplified when writing about their doctrinal opponents.

Access to texts such as the Gospel of Judas has allowed scholars to develop a much richer, more comprehensive understanding of non-Nicene movements. To blandly assert that the Gospel of Judas is a Gnostic text without qualifying this statement in some way does not make allowance for the variety and complexity of the ‘heretical’ movements.

The Gospel of Judas was condemned by Irenaeus in his anti-Gnostic work Adversus Haereses (Against Heresies), written in about 180 best running band. Despite this, The Gospel of Judas differs from other non-Nicene Gospels in several ways football uniforms design your own. Far from arguing that the physical body is a prison which needs to be escaped from, the Gospel of Judas portrays Jesus as able to leave his body at will and take on other forms, appearing to be a child. In the text, Jesus is shown leaving his body, journeying to the imperishable realm and returning to his body. Unlike other non-Nicene Gospels, the Gospel of Judas is Sethian in orientation in that Adam’s son Seth is seen as a spiritual ancestor. As in other Sethian documents, Jesus is equated with Seth: “The first is Seth, who is called Christ”.

The initial translation of the Gospel of Judas was widely publicized but simply confirmed the account that was written in Irenaeus and known Gnostic beliefs, leading some scholars to simply summarize the discovery as nothing new. However, it is argued that a closer reading of the existent text, as presented in October 2006, shows Christianity in a new light. According to Elaine Pagels, for instance, Judas is portrayed as having a mission to hand Jesus over to the soldiers. She says that Bible translators have mistranslated the Greek word for “handing over” to “betrayal”.

Like many Gnostic works, the Gospel of Judas refers to itself as a secret account, specifically “The secret account of the revelation that Jesus spoke in conversation with Judas Iscariot….”

Over the ages many philosophers have contemplated the idea that Judas was required to have carried out his actions in order for Jesus to have died on the cross and hence fulfill theological obligations.

The Gospel of Judas states that Jesus told Judas “You shall be cursed for generations” and then added, “You will come to rule over them” and “You will exceed all of them, for you will sacrifice the man that clothes me.”

Unlike the four canonical gospels, which employ narrative accounts of the last year of Jesus’s life (in the case of John, three years) and of his birth (in the case of Luke and Matthew), the Judas gospel takes the form of dialogues between Jesus and Judas, and Jesus and the twelve disciples, without being embedded in any narrative or worked into any overt philosophical or rhetorical context. Such “dialogue gospels” were popular during the early decades of Christianity, and indeed the four canonical gospels are distinguished from the others as the only surviving gospels in narrative form. The New Testament apocrypha contains several examples of the dialogue form, an example being the Gospel of Mary.

Like the canonical gospels, the Gospel of Judas portrays the scribes as approaching Judas with the intention of arresting him, and Judas receiving money from them after handing Jesus over to them. But unlike Judas in the canonical gospels, who is portrayed as a villain, and excoriated by Jesus (“Alas for that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed. It would be better for that man if he had never been born,” trans. The New English Bible) ; , the Judas gospel portrays Judas as a divinely appointed instrument of a grand and predetermined purpose. “In the last days they will curse your ascent to the holy (generation).”

Elsewhere in the manuscript, Jesus favours Judas above other disciples by saying, “Step away from the others and I shall tell you the mysteries of the kingdom,” and “Look, you have been told everything. Lift up your eyes and look at the cloud and the light within it and the stars surrounding it. The star that leads the way is your star.”

The content of the gospel had been unknown until a Coptic Gospel of Judas turned up on the antiquities “grey market,” in Geneva in May 1983, when it was found among a mixed group of Greek and Coptic manuscripts offered to Stephen Emmel, a Yale Ph.D. candidate commissioned by Southern Methodist University to inspect the manuscripts. How this manuscript, Codex Tchacos, was found, maybe in the late 1970s, has not been clearly documented. However, it is believed that a now-deceased Egyptian “treasure-hunter” or prospector discovered the codex near El Minya, Egypt, in the neighbourhood of the village Beni Masar, and sold it to one Hanna, a dealer in antiquities resident in Cairo.

In the 1970s, the manuscript and most of the dealer’s other artifacts were stolen by a Greek trader named Nikolas Koutoulakis, and smuggled into Geneva. Hanna, along with Swiss antiquity traders, paid Koutoulakis a sum rumoured to be between $3 million to $10 million, recovered the manuscript and introduced it to experts who recognized its significance.

During the following two decades the manuscript was quietly offered to prospective buyers, but no major library or Egypt felt ready to purchase a manuscript that had such questionable provenance. In 2003 Michel van Rijn started to publish material about these dubious negotiations, and eventually the 62-page leather-bound codex was donated to the Maecenas Foundation in Basel. The previous owners now reported that it had been uncovered at Muhafazat al Minya in Egypt during the 1950s or 1960s, and that its significance had not been appreciated until recently. It is worth noting that various other locations had been alleged during previous negotiations.

The existence of the text was made public by Rodolphe Kasser at a conference of Coptic specialists in Paris, July 2004. In a statement issued March 30, 2005, a spokesman for the Maecenas Foundation announced plans for edited translations into English, French, German, and Polish once the fragile papyrus had undergone conservation by a team of specialists in Coptic history to be led by a former professor at the University of Geneva, Rodolphe Kasser, and that their work would be published in about a year. A. J. Tim Jull, director of the National Science Foundation Arizona AMS laboratory, and Gregory Hodgins, assistant research scientist, announced that a radiocarbon dating procedure had dated five samples from the papyrus manuscript from 220 to 340 in January 2005 at the University of Arizona. This puts the Coptic manuscript in the 3rd or 4th centuries, a century earlier than had originally been thought from analysis of the script. In January 2006, Gene A. Ware of the Papyrological Imaging Lab of Brigham Young University conducted a multi-spectral imaging process on the texts in Switzerland, and confirmed their authenticity

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Over the decades, the manuscript had been handled with less than sympathetic care: some single pages may be loose on the antiquities market (one half page turned up in Feb. 2006, in New York City[citation needed]); the text is now in over a thousand pieces and fragments, and is believed to be less than three-quarters complete. “After concluding the research, everything will be returned to Egypt. The work belongs there and they will be conserved in the best way,” Roberty has stated.

In April 2006, an Ohio bankruptcy lawyer said that he possesses several small, brown bits of papyrus from the Gospel of Judas, but he refuses to have the fragments authenticated and his report is being viewed with skepticism by experts.

Kasser revealed a few details about the text in 2004, the Dutch paper Het Parool reported.[citation needed] Its language is the same Sahidic dialect of Coptic in which Coptic texts of the Nag Hammadi Library are written. The codex has four parts:

Up to a third of the codex is currently illegible.

A scientific paper was to be published in 2005, but was delayed. The completion of the restoration and translation was announced by the National Geographic Society at a news conference in Washington, D.C. on April 6, 2006, and the manuscript itself was unveiled then at the National Geographic Society headquarters, accompanied by a television special entitled The Gospel of Judas on April 9, 2006, which was aired on the National Geographic Channel. Terry Garcia, an executive vice president for Mission Programs of the National Geographic Society, asserted that the codex is considered by scholars and scientists to be the most significant ancient, non-biblical text to be found since the 1940s. However, James M. Robinson, general editor of the Nag Hammadi Library, predicted that the new book would offer no historical insights into the disciple who betrayed Jesus, since the 2nd-century manuscript seems to derive from an older document. Robinson suggested that the text will provide insights into the religious situation during the 2nd century rather than into the biblical narrative itself.

One scholar on the National Geographic project believes the document shows that Judas was “fooled” into believing he was helping Jesus.

Another scholar, April D. DeConick, a professor of Biblical studies at Rice University, opines in an op-ed in The New York Times that the National Geographic translation was critically faulty in many substantial respects, and that based on a corrected translation, Judas was actually a demon, truly betraying Jesus, rather than following his orders. DeConick, after re-translating the text, published The Thirteenth Apostle: What the Gospel of Judas Really Says to assert that Judas was not a daimon in the Greek sense, but that “the universally accepted word for ‘spirit’ is ‘pneuma’ — in Gnostic literature ‘daimon’ is always taken to mean ‘demon'”. She further stated that “Judas is not set apart ‘for’ the holy generation, as the National Geographic translation says, he is separated ‘from’ it.” DeConick went on to ask, “Were they genuine errors or was something more deliberate going on?” The National Geographic Society responded that “virtually all issues April D. DeConick raises about translation choices are addressed in footnotes in both the popular and critical editions”.

André Gagné, Professor at Concordia University in Montreal, also questioned how the experts of the National Geographic Society understood the role of Judas Iscariot in the Gospel of Judas. His argument rests on the translation of the Greco-Coptic term apophasis as “denial”. According to Gagné, the opening lines of the Judas Gospel should not be translated as “the secret word of declaration by which Jesus spoke in conversation with Judas Iscariot” but rather as “the secret word of the denial by which Jesus spoke in conversation with Judas Iscariot” (Gospel of Judas 33:1). Gagné’s conclusion is that this gospel is the story of the denial of true salvation for Judas.

In 2006 Géza Vermes commented the gospel was “a typical product of Greek (Platonic)-Christian speculation” representing Judas “assisting the Jewish authorities’ arrest of Jesus and bringing about his liberation from the prison of his body.”. This view is exemplified by a passage where Jesus says to Judas, “For you will sacrifice the man that clothes me.” (Gospel of Judas 56.18-20)

Scholars are divided on the interpretation of the text. The first modern publication of the gospel contended that the text portrays Judas in a positive light, while other scholars have asserted that Judas is presented negatively. There is no consensus on how Judas is characterized in this gospel

There may be additional fragments of the gospel yet to be released.

CNN TV series entitled “Finding Jesus – Faith, Fact, Forgery” featured The Gospel of Judas in its 3rd episode which was aired on March 15, 2015.

In his 2006 Easter address, Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury, strongly denied the historical credibility of the gospel, saying,

This is a demonstrably late text which simply parallels a large number of quite well-known works from the more eccentric fringes of the early century Church.

He went on to suggest that the book’s publicity derives from an insatiable desire for conspiracy theories:

We are instantly fascinated by the suggestion of conspiracies and cover-ups; this has become so much the stuff of our imagination these days that it is only natural, it seems, to expect it when we turn to ancient texts, especially biblical texts. We treat them as if they were unconvincing press releases from some official source, whose intention is to conceal the real story; and that real story waits for the intrepid investigator to uncover it and share it with the waiting world. Anything that looks like the official version is automatically suspect.

The president of the Maecenas Foundation, Mario Roberty, suggested the possibility that the Maecenas Foundation had acquired not the only extant copy of the Gospel, but rather the only known copy. Roberty went on to suggest that the Vatican probably had another copy locked away, saying:

In those days the Church decided for political reasons to include the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John in the Bible. The other gospels were banned. It is highly logical that the Catholic Church would have kept a copy of the forbidden gospels. Sadly, the Vatican does not want to clarify further. Their policy has been the same for years – “No further comment”.

Roberty provided no evidence to suggest that the Vatican does, in fact, possess any additional copy. While the contents of one part of the Vatican library have been catalogued and have long been available to researchers and scholars, the remainder of the library is, however, without a public catalogue, and though researchers may view any work within, they must first name the text they require, a serious problem for those who do not know what is contained by the library. The Pope responded on April 13, 2006:

The Vatican, by word of Pope Benedict XVI, grants the recently surfaced Judas’ Gospel no credit with regards to its apocryphal claims that Judas betrayed Jesus in compliance with the latter’s own requests. According to the Pope, Judas freely chose to betray Jesus: “an open rejection of God’s love.” Judas, according to Pope Benedict XVI “viewed Jesus in terms of power and success: his only real interests lay in his power and success, there was no love involved. He was a greedy man: money was more important than communing with Jesus; money came before God and his love.” According to the Pope it was due to these traits that led Judas to “turn liar, two-faced, indifferent to the truth”, “losing any sense of God”, “turning hard, incapable of converting, of being the prodigal son, hence throwing away a spent existence”.

Spokespersons say the Vatican does not wish to suppress the Gospel of Judas; rather, according to Monsignor Walter Brandmüller, president of the Vatican’s Committee for Historical Science, “We welcome the [manuscript] like we welcome the critical study of any text of ancient literature.”

Even more explicitly, Father Thomas D. Williams, Dean of Theology at the Regina Apostolorum university in Rome, when asked:

Is it true that the Catholic Church has tried to cover up this text [Gospel of Judas] and other apocryphal texts?

answered as follows:

These are myths circulated by Dan Brown and numerous conspiracy theorists.

You can go to any Catholic bookstore and pick up a copy of the Gnostic gospels. Christians may not believe them to be true, but there is no attempt to hide them.

In AD 367, bishop Athanasius of Alexandria did urge Christians to reject “books called apocryphal”.

Adrien Bosc

Œuvres principales

Adrien Bosc, né le à Avignon (Vaucluse), est un écrivain et un éditeur français.

Adrien Bosc était élève au collège pour enfants précoces à l’Immaculée Conception à Aubenas puis au lycée Mistral à Avignon.

Il a fondé les Éditions du Sous-Sol qui publient les revues Feuilleton et Desports infant soccer socks.

Constellation est son premier roman qui a pour sujet l’avion Lockheed Constellation du vol Paris-New-York Air France qui s’écrase le sur le Pico de Vara, une montagne de l’île São Miguel wholesale argyle socks, dans l’archipel des Açores avec 48 passagers et membres de l’équipage de l’avion dont Marcel Cerdan et la violoniste Ginette Neveu. Le roman est dans les premières sélections du prix Goncourt, du grand prix du roman de l’Académie française, du prix Renaudot, du prix de Flore england football shirt, du grand prix des lectrices de Elle, et figure parmi les quatre finalistes du prix Jean-Giono.

Pour ce roman, Adrien Bosc reçoit en septembre 2014 le prix littéraire de la Vocation et en octobre le Grand prix du roman de l’Académie française.

En janvier 2016 il est nommé directeur adjoint de l’édition, aux côtés de Ludovic Rio, des éditions du Seuil.

Selma Wijnberg

Selma Engel-Wijnberg (Groningen, 15 mei 1922) is Nederlands Holocaustoverlevende en de enige Nederlandse gevangene van vernietigingskamp Sobibór die daaruit ontsnapte.

Wijnberg groeide op in Zwolle waar haar ouders een hotel hadden, hotel Wijnberg.

Vanaf september 1942 was Wijnberg, in die tijd ook Sarah of Saartje genoemd thermos flask stainless steel, ondergedoken in Utrecht en daarna in De Bilt. Haar onderduiknaam werd Greetje van den Berg. Ze werd op 18 december op de Utrechtseweg door de politie gearresteerd. In februari 1943 werd ze naar het kamp Vught gebracht, hierna verbleef ze een week in Kamp Westerbork en vanaf 9 april in Sobibór.

Na haar ontsnapping tijdens de opstand van 14 oktober 1943 (zie Escape from Sobibor), vluchtte ze met de Poolse Jood Chajm Engel (Koło, 10 augustus 1916 – 2003), waar ze in Sobibór verliefd op was geworden. Het paar vluchtte door een mijnenveld en een bos en dook negen maanden lang onder in de zolder van een boerderij, tot aan de bevrijding van Polen in juli 1944 door het Rode leger. Ondertussen was het paar getrouwd en raakte Selma zwanger.

Via Chełm en Parczewski round meat tenderizer, waar hun zoon Emiel geboren werd, gingen ze naar Lubin footless football socks. Vandaar gingen ze per trein dwars door de Oekraïne naar Tsjernivtsi en vandaar naar Odessa. Per boot, waar Chajm als niet-West-Europeaan opgesmokkeld moest worden, vertrokken ze naar Marseille. Op de boot overleed Emiel. Het lichaam werd bij Griekenland in zee gegooid. Per trein kwamen ze terug in Zwolle en gingen wonen in Hotel Wijnberg.

KVP-minister Hans Kolfschoten besloot dat Chajm als ongewenst vreemdeling niet in Nederland kon blijven. In Nederland huwden ze op 18 september 1945 opnieuw en de Zwolse politie trok daaruit de conclusie dat Wijnberg door te trouwen met de Pool Engel ook de Poolse nationaliteit gekregen had en vroeg aan het Ministerie van Justitie wat er met beiden moest gebeuren. Ze werden echter niet uitgezet omdat Polen geen onderdanen uit het buitenland opnam. Er werd overwogen om beiden in een vreemdelingenkamp in Valkenswaard op te sluiten, maar daarmee werd gewacht, omdat er verwacht werd beiden snel alsnog naar Polen uit te kunnen zetten. In Zwolle kreeg het paar een zoon en een dochter en ze dreven een stoffen- en modezaak.

In 1951 vertrokken ze naar Israël waar ze eerst in de kibboets Moledet en daarna in Beit Yitzhak gingen wonen. Omdat Chajm daar niet kon wennen gingen ze in 1957 naar de Verenigde Staten waar ze zich in Branford vestigden. Ze keerden alleen enkele keren terug naar Europa om te getuigen tegen oorlogsmisdadigers uit Sobibór. In 2003 stierf Chajm.

Op 12 april 2010 bood minister Ab Klink tijdens de Westerbork-herdenking namens de Nederlandse regering excuus aan voor de houding van de Nederlandse regering. Deze excuses wilde mevrouw Wijnberg niet aannemen, omdat zij deze ‘te laat’ vond. Ze werd op diezelfde dag benoemd tot Ridder in de Orde van Oranje-Nassau.

Haar rol in de uitbraak werd in de film Escape from Sobibor vertolkt door Ellis van Maarseveen. Ad van Liempt schreef de biografie Selma: De vrouw die Sobibor overleefde (ISBN 9789074274425) en maakte een documentaire die door de NOS op televisie werd uitgezonden.

Neues Deutschland

Neues Deutschland (ND) är en tysk dagstidning med tyngdpunkten på de fem nya förbundsländerna (tidigare Östtyskland). Tidningens huvudkontor ligger i Berlin. Under DDR-tiden var Neues Deutschland den ledande dagstidningen i DDR glass filter water bottle. I dag betecknar man sig som “socialistisk dagstidning”.

Neues Deutschland skapades 1946 i samband med sammanslagningen av Tysklands socialdemokratiska parti och Tysklands kommunistiska parti i den sovjetiska ockupationszonen till Tysklands socialistiska enhetsparti. Neues Deutschland som blev SED:s centralorgan kom ut första gången 23 april 1946 i samband med paritets grundande football classic shirts. Den var då en så kallad Lizenzzeitung, det vill säga en tidning med licens från de allierade. Neues Deutschland ersatte då de tidningar man haft tidigare, SPD:s Das Volk och KPD:s Deutsche Volkszeitung water belt.

Neues Deutschland kontrollerades av SED under DDR-tiden och användes som en del i propagandan av SED:s högsta ledning och DDR:s ministerråd. SED besatte den inflytelserika posten som chefredaktör; bland annat Günter Schabowski verkade på posten. Innan den tyska återföreningen 1990 hade tidningen en upplaga på en miljon exemplar men därefter sjönk upplagan kontinuerligt och idag ligger den på 48 440 exemplar. Läsarkretsen domineras av personer över 60.

Poirot sul Nilo (film)

Poirot sul Nilo (Death on the Nile) è un film del 2004 diretto da Andy Wilson. Tratto dall’omonimo romanzo di Agatha Christie, fa parte della serie tv britannica Poirot.

La bella e giovane ereditiera Linnet Ridgeway ha appena sposato Simon Doyle. Per festeggiare il loro matrimonio, decidono di concedersi una luna di miele in Egitto, attraversando il Nilo in crociera. Su quella stessa nave si ritrovano vari personaggi, e sembra che tutti abbiano a che fare runners water belt, nel bene o nel male, con la giovane sposina, che presto viene trovata assassinata; Jacqueline de Bellefort, ex- fidanzata di Simon, presente sulla nave, viene subito sospettata del delitto. Caso vuole che su quella stessa nave ci sia anche Hercule Poirot, il celebre detective privato glass liter water bottle, ed ovviamente si metterà sulle tracce dell’assassino, riuscendo ancora una volta nella sua impresa. Ma anche stavolta il finale sarà tutt’altro che scontato.

Altri progetti

Roazhon Park

Stade de la Route de Lorient (bis 2015)

Der Roazhon Park (deutsch Rennes-Park) ist ein Fußballstadion im französischen Rennes, der größten Stadt der Bretagne sweater shavers. Der Fußballclub Stade Rennes trägt hier seine Heimspiele aus.

Das Stadion wurde am 15. September 1912 unter dem Namen Stade de la Route de Lorient eingeweiht. Eine Vergrößerung erfolgte 1999 und wurde fünf Jahre später abgeschlossen. Seitdem beträgt die Kapazität 29.778 Sitzplätze. Zur Einweihung des neuen Stadions fand dort am 16. September 2004 das Freundschaftsspiel zwischen Frankreich und Bosnien-Herzegowina (Ergebnis: 1:1) statt. Am 2. Juni 2007 fand dort erstmals auch die ansonsten im Stade de la Beaujoire in Nantes gefeierte Keltische Nacht (Nuit celtique) statt.

Einen Zuschauerrekord gab es am 20 Women Strapless. August 2005 mit 29.490 Gästen bei einem Spiel zwischen Stade Rennes und Olympique Marseille.

Zur Saison 2015/16 wurde das Stadion umbenannt. Dazu hatte der Verein seinen Anhängern drei Optionen zur Auswahl gestellt, über die diese zehn Tage lang abstimmen konnten: Roazhon Park, Roazhon Celtic Park oder Stade des Hermines. Roazhon ist der bretonische Name von Rennes; die Hermines (Hermelin-Symbole) sind dort das wichtigste nationale Erkennungszeichen, die sich beispielsweise auch in der Flagge der Bretagne finden.

Am 12. Juni 2015 wurde als Ergebnis verkündet, dass sich 70 Prozent für den Namen Roazhon Park entschieden hatten. Das Stadion wurde in den Vereinsfarben (z. B. Sitze und Schilder) von Stade Rennes ausgestattet und mit einem Freundschaftsspiel am 1. August 2015 gegen den FC Turin eingeweiht.

Stade Jean-Bouin (SCO Angers) | Stade Armand Cesari (SC Bastia) | Stade Matmut-Atlantique (Girondins Bordeaux) | Stade Michel-d’Ornano (SM Caen) | Stade Gaston Gérard (FCO Dijon) | Stade de Roudourou (EA Guingamp) | Stade Pierre-Mauroy (OSC Lille) | Stade du Moustoir (FC Lorient) | Parc Olympique Lyonnais (Olympique Lyon) | Orange Vélodrome (Olympique Marseille) | Stade Saint-Symphorien (FC Metz) | Stade Louis II (AS Monaco) | Stade de la Mosson (HSC Montpellier) | Stade Marcel-Picot (AS Nancy) | Stade Louis-Fonteneau (FC Nantes) | Allianz Riviera (OGC Nizza) | Parc des Princes (Paris Saint-Germain) | Roazhon Park (Stade Rennes) | Stade Geoffroy-Guichard (AS Saint-Étienne) | Stadium Municipal (FC Toulouse)

Ave Satani

Si vous disposez d’ouvrages ou d’articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l’article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (, comment ajouter mes sources ?).

Ave Satani est le nom générique donné au thème musical composé pour le film La Malédiction (1976) de Richard Donner par le compositeur américain Jerry Goldsmith glass drinking bottle with caps.

Pour la première fois des chœurs maléfiques ont été utilisés dans une musique de film, chantant une messe noire en latin [réf. nécessaire].

Le compositeur a reçu l’Oscar de la meilleure musique pour ce film, récompensant ainsi son audace et le caractère réellement terrifiant de sa partition.

Sailor

A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance. The term bluejacket may be used for British or US Navy enlisted sailors, the latter especially when deployed ashore as infantry. The Bluejacket’s Manual is the basic handbook for United States Navy personnel. 700,000 of the world’s mariners come from the Philippines, being the world’s largest origin of seafarers.

Etymologically, the name “sailor” preserves the memory of the time when ships were commonly powered by sails, but it applies to the personnel of all vessels, whatever their mode of propulsion, and includes military (naval) and security (coast guard) maritime personnel and members of the merchant marine, as well as recreational sailors. The term “seaman” is frequently used in the particular sense of a sailor who is not an officer.

Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, each of which carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of an ocean-going vessel. A ship’s crew can generally be divided into four main categories: the deck department, the engineering department, the steward’s department, and others.

Officer positions in the deck department include but are not limited to: master and his chief, second and third officers. The official classifications for unlicensed members of the deck department are able seaman and ordinary seaman. With some variation, the chief mate is most often charged with the duties of cargo mate. Second Mates are charged with being the medical officer in case of medical emergency. All three mates each do four-hour morning and afternoon shifts on the bridge, when underway at sea.

A common deck crew for a ship includes:

A ship’s engineering department consists of the members of a ship’s crew that operates and maintains the propulsion and other systems on board the vessel. Marine engineering staff also deal with the “hotel” facilities on board, notably the sewage, lighting, air conditioning and water systems. Engineering staff manage bulk fuel transfers, from a fuel-supply barge in port. When underway at sea, the second and third engineers will often be occupied with oil transfers from storage tanks, to active working tanks. Cleaning of oil purifiers is another regular task. Engineering staff are required to have training in firefighting and first aid. Additional duties include maintaining the ship’s boats and performing other nautical tasks. Engineers play a key role in cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers and deck workers.

A common engineering crew for a ship includes:

USA ships also carry a qualified member of the engine department. Other possible positions include motorman, machinist, electrician, refrigeration engineer and tankerman.

A typical steward’s department for a cargo ship is a chief steward, a chief cook and a steward’s assistant. All three positions are typically filled by unlicensed personnel.

The chief steward directs, instructs, and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals; cleaning and maintaining officers’ quarters and steward department areas; and receiving, issuing, and inventorying stores.

The chief steward also plans menus; compiles supply, overtime soccer t shirts funny, and cost control records. The steward may requisition or purchase stores and equipment. Galley roles may include baking.

A chief steward’s duties may overlap with those of the steward’s assistant, the chief cook, and other Steward’s department crewmembers.

A person has to have a Merchant Mariner’s Document issued by the United States Coast Guard in the United States Merchant Marine in order to serve as a chief steward. All chief cooks who sail internationally are similarly documented by their respective countries because of international conventions and agreements.

The only time that steward department staff are charged with duties outside the steward department, is during the execution of the fire and boat drill.

Various types of staff officer positions may exist on board a ship, including junior assistant purser, senior assistant purser, purser, chief purser, medical doctor, professional nurse, marine physician assistant and hospital corpsman. These jobs are considered administrative positions and are therefore regulated by Certificates of Registry issued by the United States Coast Guard. Pilots are also merchant marine officers and are licensed by the Coast Guard.

Mariners spend extended periods at sea. Most deep-sea mariners are hired for one or more voyages that last for several months. There is no job security after that. The length of time between voyages varies by job availability and personal preference.

The rate of unionization for these workers in the United States is about 36 percent, much higher than the average for all occupations. Consequently, merchant marine officers and seamen, both veterans and beginners, are hired for voyages through union hiring halls or directly by shipping companies. Hiring halls fill jobs by the length of time the person has been registered at the hall and by their union seniority. Hiring halls typically are found in major seaports.

At sea, on larger vessels members of the deck department usually stand watch for 4 hours and are off for 8 hours, 7 days a week.

Mariners work in all weather conditions. Working in damp and cold conditions often is inevitable, although ships try to avoid severe storms while at sea. It is uncommon for modern vessels to suffer disasters such as fire, explosion, or a sinking. Yet workers face the possibility of having to abandon ship on short notice if it collides with other vessels or runs aground. Mariners also risk injury or death from falling overboard and from hazards associated with working with machinery, heavy loads, and dangerous cargo. However, modern safety management procedures, advanced emergency communications, and effective international rescue systems place modern mariners in a much safer position.

Most newer vessels are air conditioned, soundproofed from noisy machinery, and equipped with comfortable living quarters. These amenities have helped ease the sometimes difficult circumstances of long periods away from home. Also, modern communications, especially email, link modern mariners to their families. Nevertheless, some mariners dislike the long periods away from home and the confinement aboard ship. They consequently leave the profession.

Professional mariners live on the margins of society, with much of their life spent beyond the reach of land. They face cramped, stark, noisy, and dangerous conditions at sea. Yet men and women still go to sea. For some, the attraction is a life unencumbered with the restraints of life ashore. Seagoing adventure and a chance to see the world also appeal to many seafarers. Whatever the calling, those who live and work at sea invariably confront social isolation.

Findings by the Seafarer’s International Research Center indicate a leading cause of mariners leaving the industry is “almost invariably because they want to be with their families”. U.S. merchant ships typically do not allow family members to accompany seafarers on voyages. Industry experts increasingly recognize isolation, stress, and fatigue as occupational hazards. Advocacy groups such as International Labor Organization, a United Nations agency, and the Nautical Institute seek improved international standards for mariners.

One’s service aboard ships typically extends for months at a time, followed by protracted shore leave. However, some seamen secure jobs on ships they like and stay aboard for years. In rare cases, veteran mariners choose never to go ashore when in port.

Further, the quick turnaround of many modern ships, spending only a matter of hours in port, limits a seafarer’s free-time ashore. Moreover, some seafarers entering U.S. ports from a watch list of 25 countries deemed high-risk face restrictions on shore leave due to security concerns in a post 9/11 environment. However, shore leave restrictions while in U.S. ports impact American seamen as well. For example, the International Organization of Masters, Mates & Pilots notes a trend of U.S. shipping terminal operators restricting seamen from traveling from the ship to the terminal gate. Further, in cases where transit is allowed, special “security fees” are at times assessed.

Such restrictions on shore leave coupled with reduced time in port by many ships translate into longer periods at sea. Mariners report that extended periods at sea living and working with shipmates who for the most part are strangers takes getting used to. At the same time, there is an opportunity to meet people from a wide range of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Recreational opportunities have improved aboard some U.S. ships, which may feature gyms and day rooms for watching movies, swapping sea stories, and other activities. And in some cases, especially tankers, it is made possible for a mariner to be accompanied by members of his family. However, a mariner’s off duty time at sea is largely a solitary affair, pursuing hobbies, reading, writing letters, and sleeping.

Internet accessibility is fast coming to the sea with the advent of cheap satellite communication how to tenderize meat without a meat tenderizer, mainly from Inmarsat

Erik the Red and his son Leif Erikson were the first notable mariners known to sail in a primitive, partly man powered vessel across the Arctic and the North Atlantic Ocean.

Barbarossa Hayrettin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayrettin Paşa or Hızır Hayrettin Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. 1478 – 4 July 1546) was an Ottoman admiral who dominated the Mediterranean for decades. He was born on the island of Lesbos/ Mytilini and died in Istanbul, the Ottoman capital.

Merchant seamen have gone on to make their mark on the world in a number of interesting ways. Traian Băsescu, who started his career as a third mate in 1976 is now the President of Romania. Arthur Phillip joined the Merchant Navy in 1751 and 37 years later founded the city of Sydney, Australia. Merchant mariner Douglass North went from seaman to navigator to winner of the 1993 Nobel Prize in Economics. Jimmy Carter went on to become the 39th President of the United States after service in the US Navy.

Members of the British Merchant Navy have won the Distinguished Service Cross and have had careers taking them from ‘Deck Boy Peter’ to Air Marshal Sir Beresford Peter Torrington Horsley KCB, CBE, LVO, AFC. Canadian merchant seamen have won the Victoria Cross and the Medal of Honor. American merchant seamen have won the Medal of Honor in the Korean War and Vietnam War, and one went on to become the “Father of the American Navy.” One doesn’t have to look far to find merchant seamen who became war heroes in Scotland, France, New Zealand, Peru, or Denmark.

Since World War II, a number of merchant seamen have become notorious criminals. American William Colepaugh was convicted as a Nazi spy in World War II and Fritz Sauckel was convicted as a Nazi war criminal. Briton Duncan Scott-Ford was hanged for treachery in World War II. George Hennard was an American mass murderer who claimed 24 victims on a rampage at Luby’s Cafeteria in Killeen, Texas. And Perry Smith’s own murderous rampage was made famous in Truman Capote’s non-fiction novel In Cold Blood.

Mariners are well represented in the visual arts. French pilot’s assistant Paul Gauguin later became a leading post-impressionist painter and pioneered modern art’s synthetist style. American seaman Haskell Wexler later won two Academy Awards, the latter for a biography of his shipmate Woody Guthrie. British Merchant Navy member Ken Russell later directed films such as Tommy, Altered States and The Lair of the White Worm. Merchant seaman Johnny Craig was already a working comic book artist before he joined up, but Ernie Schroeder wouldn’t start drawing comics until after returning home from World War II.

Merchant sailors have also made a splash in the world of sport. In football, with Fred Blackburn in England and the likes of Dan Devine and Heisman Trophy winner Frank Sinkwich in the U.S. In track and field, American seamen Cornelius Johnson and Jim Thorpe both won Olympic medals, though Thorpe didn’t get his until 30 years after his death. Seamen Jim Bagby, Jr. and Charlie Keller went on to Major League Baseball. Drew Bundini Brown was Muhammad Ali’s assistant trainer and cornerman, and Joe Gold went on to make his fortune as the bodybuilding and fitness guru of Gold’s Gym.

Other sporting notables include Dutchman Henk de Velde known for sailing solo around the world, and Briton Matthew Webb who was the first person to swim the English Channel without the use of artificial aid.

Irish Merchant Navy member Kevin McClory spent 14 days in a lifeboat and later went on to write the James Bond movies Never Say Never Again and Thunderball. Members of the American Beat Movement Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, Bob Kaufman, and Herbert Huncke were all Merchant Mariners.

It is perhaps not surprising that the writers of Moby Dick, The American Practical Navigator, and Two Years Before the Mast were Merchant Mariners. It might be surprising that the writers of Borat, A Hard Day’s Night, and Cool Hand Luke were.

Seamen always complain about leaving their girl friends ashore, but imagine how James Dougherty felt, leaving his 17-year-old wife Marilyn Monroe on the beach. Merchant Navy steward Freddie Lennon had a surprise when he returned home to find he had a newborn son. That son later founded the musical group The Beatles.

A number of U.S. Merchant Mariners from World War II later played well known television characters. The list includes Milburn Drysdale on The Beverly Hillbillies, Archie Bunker on All in the Family, Peter Falk on Columbo, Jim Rockford on The Rockford Files, Steve McGarret on Hawaii Five-O dry pak, Uncle Jesse Duke on The Dukes of Hazzard and Cheyenne Bodie on Cheyenne.

An ancient term, the word “sailor” has come to mean many things. Sailor may refer to:

D’Estienne d’Orves-klassen

FS Lieutenant de vaisseau Lavellée (F790)

D’Estienne d’Orves-klassen er en klasse af korvetter (på fransk omtalt som Aviso) i brug i den franske marine efter lanceringen af Plan bleu, en plan som skulle forbedre den franske antiubådskrigsførelseskapacitet (ASW) og erstatte hen imod 32 aldrende skibe. Korvetternes opgaver i krigstid er antiubådskrigsførelse steel drinking bottle, hvor de under den kolde krig skulle bekæmpe sovjetisk ubådsaktivitet i Atlanterhavet, dog foretrak man at benytte de større skibe af Georges Leygues- eller Tourville-klassen på grund af den relativt svage sonar D’Estienne d’Orves-klassen var udrustet med. Skibene kan også benyttes til eskortetjeneste langt fra land (især i støtteoperationer til FOST). Klassen er bygget på et simpelt og robust design og er udstyret med et økonomisk og nemt vedligeholdt fremdrivningssystem samt et relativt kraftigt våbensystem for et skib sin størrelse. Skibenes nuværende opgaver består af suverænitetshåndhævelse glass bottles, politimæssige opgaver såsom bekæmpelse af smugling, fiskerikontrol og søredning. Skibene er desuden berygtede for deres bevægelser i vandet i hårdt vejr, på grund af skibets lange og slange konstruktion.

Frankrig har bygget 20 enheder af denne klasse hvoraf 3 var med henblik på eksport. De franske enheder blev navngivet efter franske søhelte under 2 thermos brand water bottle. verdenskrig. Otte af disse enheder er siden blevet udfaset af La Royale, hvoraf seks er solgt til den tyrkiske flåde, hvor de er benævnt B-klassen. To enheder blev i 1970’erne bestilt af Sydafrika, men på grund af FN’s våbenembargo mod Sydafrika, kunne handlen ikke gennemføres. Armada de la República Argentina købte de to sydafrikanske korvetter i 1978 og bestilte efterfølgende endnu en enhed i 1981. I Argentina er klassen benævnt Drummond-klassen sweater pill remover.

De 9 resterende skibe i franske tjeneste skal efter planen have afmonteret deres tunge våben og omklassificeres som inspektionsskibe, hvorefter de skal erstatte patruljefartøjerne af P400-klassen.

Under den argentinske invasion af South Georgia d. 3. april 1982 blev ARA Guerrico beskadiget af dysekanoner (en slags bazookaer) affyret af britiske marineinfanterister. 100 mm-kanonen og Exocet-ramper blev sat ud af spillet.